Source: Warhammer Fantasy: 6th Edition

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Warhammer Fantasy:
6th Edition
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The digital rulebook contains the compiled main rulebook in one location in a printable format with hardcopy page references. Additional references are included from White Dwarf, Warhammer Annual and Warhammer Chronicles.

Print or save as a PDF to create a two-column, paged layout. For best printing results, it is recommended to use a non-mobile device. (Note: Safari and iOS devices do not support multi-column printing.)


Table of Contents

Introduction(Main Rulebook, p. 36)

Welcome to Warhammer, the game of fantasy battles. Warhammer is a game of combat in which players take command of painted miniature armies complete with infantry regiments, cavalry squadrons and lumbering war machines.

This book contains all the information you will need in order to play Warhammer, as well as background information, advice on collecting and painting an army, running a campaign, and much more besides.

Tabletop Conflict(Main Rulebook, p. 36)

In Warhammer, the opposing factions - the armies - are represented by models, assembled and painted by you.

Your tabletop becomes part of the Warhammer world, be it the steaming jungles of Lustria, the wind-swept plain of Kislev or the forbidding forests of the Empire.

The aim of the game is to outfight your opponent, which requires a mixture of both skill and luck. You'll soon learn how to arm and design your army effectively, and how to exploit the terrain to your best advantage.

You'll probably want to expand your basic force as you play more games. This is easy as there are lots of models available for all the armies and new miniatures will be coming out all the time. With these you can expand your army, equip your heroes with different weapons and armour and hire mercenaries to join your force.

New Players(Main Rulebook, p. 36)

If you're new to Games Workshop games you'll be reassured to know that finding other players is not normally a problem - you'll be surprised how many there are!

There may be a Games Workshop store near you where you can buy models, paint and games supplements. However, Games Workshop stores are not just shops, they are hobby centres, where the staff will happily help you to learn the rules, show you how to paint and suggest ways to develop your army.

What You Will Need(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

As well as this book, you will need the following items to play Warhammer:

  • Models

  • Playing Surface

  • Templates

  • Tape Measure

  • Other Equipment

Models(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

You will need enough miniatures of the appropriate race/type to represent the warriors in your army. lt is a good idea to work out your army on paper first and then purchase the miniatures that you require.

As you will see in the section called Warhammer Armies, each army fights in a particular way - some contain expert archers while others are better in close combat or have mighty magicians. When choosing which army you want to lead you could choose one that reflects your preferred playing style, or you could read The Warhammer World section and choose one that really captures your imagination. A good way of picking an army is simply to pick the one with the models you like the best.

Playing Surface(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

You will also need something to play your battles on. Any firm, level surface is best, such as a tabletop or an area of floor - most kitchen tables will do. It's a good idea to use an old sheet or blanket to protect the table from scratches.

Some players make a special gaming board from chipboard or other similar material (divided into two or more pieces for ease of storage) which they can use on top of a table to extend the playing area.

Whatever you use, you will find that an area approximately 6' x 4' ls about right for most battles.

Templates(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

Breath weapons of certain creatures like Dragons, as well as the shots of certain war machines, use templates to represent the area affected. There are three templates you need: a teardrop shaped flame template and two round templates with 3" and 5" diameter respectively.

At the back of the book we have included templates which you can photocopy and use in your games.

Tape Measure(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

For measuring ranges you will need a tape measure marked in inches, or a couple of plastic range rulers.

Other Equipment(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

You will also need pens and paper to record your regiments' weapons and other details.

Special Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

Special dice symbols are used to represent occurrences of luck and misfortune from this point onwards these are referred to as MISFIRE and HIT. The corresponding symbols are show below:

Warhammer uses two special dice: the Artillery dice marked 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and MISFIRE, and the Scatter dice marked with arrows and HIT symbols. These dice are used to represent the effects of various war machines such as cannons and stone throwers.

Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

All dice rolls use a standard six-sided dice (usually shortened to D6). Sometimes you will be asked to modify the result of the dice roll. This is noted as D6 plus or minus a number, such as D6+1 or D6-2. Roll the dice and add or subtract the number indicated to get the final result. You may have to roll a certain number of dice in one go. For example, 2D6 means roll two dice and add two scores together. You may also come across the term D3. As there is no such thing as a three-sided dice, use the following method for determining a score between 1 and 3. Roll a D6 and halve the score, rounding up: 1 or 2 equals 1, 3 or 4 equals 2 and 5 or 6 equals 3.

Re-rolls(Main Rulebook, p. 37)

Sometimes the rules allow you a 're-roll' of the dice. This is exactly as it sounds - pick up the dice you wish to re-roll and roll them again. The second score counts with a re-roll even if it is a worse result than the first, and a player may only re-roll a single dice once, regardless of the source of the re-roll.

Characteristics(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

In Warhammer there are many different types of warriors, from ordinary archers and spearmen to lordly knights riding mighty chargers. There are monstrous creatures too, some quite small such as Goblins and others that are huge such as fire-breathing Dragons.

To represent these in the game, we have nine characteristics that describe the various aspects of their physical or mental make up.

Movement Allowance(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

Often simply called Move this shows the number of inches a creature can move on the tabletop under normal circumstances. Eg, a Goblin with a Move of 4 (M4) can move 4".

Weapon Skill(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

Defines how accomplished or skilled a warrior is with his weapons, or how determined and vicious a monster is. Weapon Skill is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 and the higher the score the more likely the fighter is to hit an opponent in close combat. An ordinary human has WS3 whilst a battle-hardened leader might have WS4, WS5 or possibly even higher!

Ballistic Skill(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

This shows how good a warrior is with ranged weapons such as bows or handguns. Ballistic Skill is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 and the higher this value is, the easier a creature finds it to hit with missile attacks.

Some monsters have natural weapons that can be used at range (they might spit venom, for example) and their BS is used to determine whether they hit or not.

Strength(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

Shows how strong a creature is. Strength is rated on a scale of 1 to 10. An exceptionally puny creature might have a Strength characteristic of 1, while a mighty Giant might have S7 or even higher. Most Men have S3. Strength tells you how hard a creature can hit and thus how easily it can hurt an opponent it has struck.

Toughness(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

Toughness is a measure of a creature's ability to resist or withstand physical damage and pain, and reflects such factors as the toughness of a creature's flesh, hide or skin, or the depth of its fur. Toughness is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 and the tougher a creature is, the better it can withstand an enemy's blows.

Wounds(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

Shows how much damage a creature can take before it dies or is so badly hurt that it can't fight any more. Most Men and human-sized creatures have a Wounds characteristic value of 1. Large monsters are often able to withstand several wounds that would slay a smaller creature and so have W2, W3, W4 or more.

Initiative(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

This is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 and indicates how fast a creature can react. Creatures with a low Initiative score (such as Orcs with I2) are slow and cumbersome whilst creatures with a high Initiative score (eg, Elves with I6) are quicker and more agile. Humans have I3. In close combat, Initiative dictates the order in which creatures strike, since faster creatures will attack before slower ones.

Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

Indicates the number of times a creature attacks during close combat. Most creatures attack only once and have an Attacks value of 1, although some monsters or warriors of exceptional skill may be able to strike several times and have A2, A3 or more.

Leadership(Main Rulebook, p. 38)

A creature with a high Leadership value is courageous, steadfast, and seIf-controlled. A creature with a low value is the opposite! Leadership is rated on a score of 1 to 10. Humans have a Leadership value of 7, which is average, whilst cowardly Night Goblins have only a Leadership value of 5.

0 Level Characteristics(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

Some creatures have been given a value of '0' for certain characteristics which means that they have no ability whatsoever in that skill. This usually applies to creatures unable to use missile weapons, so they have BS0, but it might equally well apply to other characteristics too. For example, an ordinary horse has no Attacks (A0).

If any creature or object has a Weapon Skill of 0 then it is unable to defend itself in close combat, and any blows which are struck against it will automatically bit.

If at any time a model's Strength, Toughness or Wounds are reduced to 0 or below, it is considered slain and removed from play.

Characteristic Profiles(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

Every creature in The Warhammer world has a characteristic profile which lists the value of its different characteristics. The examples below show the profiles for an Orc and a Man.

MWSBSSTWIALd
Orc433341217
Man433331317

As you can see, an Orc and a Man are similar in many respects. They both move at the same speed - 4", and they both have the same Weapon Skill and Ballistic Skill values which means they are very evenly matched in combat. Both have the same Strength value, so they can deliver blows with equal potency. When it comes to Toughness however the Orc wins over the Man - the Orc's value is 4 compared to 3. This is not a vast difference, but it does make the Orc better able to with blows and gives it the edge in any hand-to-hand fighting. Both creatures have 1 Wound, which is the normal value for man-sized creatures. The Orc loses out however when it comes to Initiative. This is not a terrible disadvantage, but it does mean that the Man will get to strike his blows before the Orc does when they get stuck into hand-to-hand fighting. Both races have the same Leadership of 7 - which is about average.

Saves(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

A creature's saving throw gives it a chance to avoid being harmed when struck or shot. Most creatures have a saving throw based on what kind of armour they are wearing, so their saving throw may be improved if they are equipped with better armour. Other creatures, such as the reptilian Lizardmen, receive an armour saving throw for having scaly skin, while others may have a thick skin or chitinous shell which grants them an armour save.

Some troops are protected by magic or are incredibly tough by nature. These creatures have what is known as a Ward save, a special type of save which can save them from almost any type of damage.

Armour saves are taken by rolling a D6. If a creature has a 3+ armour save, it can normally avoid any wound it suffers by rolling 3 or more on a D6.

Characteristic Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

Often during a battle, a model will have to take a test on one of its characteristics. In order to pass the test, the model has to roll a D6 and obtain a result equal to or lower than the value of the characteristic involved. Note that if a 6 is rolled, then the model will automatically fail the test regardless of the characteristic's value.

Leadership Test(Main Rulebook, p. 39)

Tests that are made against the Leadership characteristic of a model are done slightly differently to other tests. In the case of a leadership test, roll two dice and add the results together. If the result is equal to or less than the model's Leadership value, the test has been passed.

Units(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

Warhammer allows you to fight battles with armies of troops, war machines and monstrous beings. It is up to you as the commander of your forces to find the best way to use your cavalry and infantry to achieve victory. The Citadel miniatures used to play Warhammer are simply referred to as models in the rules that follow. Each model is an individual playing piece with its own capabilities and characteristics.

In most cases, models band together into units. A unit will usually consist of several models, but a lone heroic character, a single, very large and powerful model such as a chariot, a monstrous creature like a Dragon or Great Cannon and its crew are also considered to be a unit.

Units have different capabilities and are divided into several types as explained below. For example, when the rules refer to cavalry units, all troops that fall under the category of cavalry must follow those rules.

Units are arranged in a formation that consists of one, two, three or more ranks. As far as possible, the unit always has the same number of models in each rank and, where not possible, it is always the rear rank that is left short. The last rank is filled from the centre.

Infantry(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

Infantry includes all units of foot troops, be they Dwarfs, Elves, Men, or any other of the myriad Warhammer races fighting on foot. A typical infantry regiment is at least 10 strong but can include 20, 40 or even more! Infantry forms the backbone of most Warhammer armies.

Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

As well as units of warriors fighting on foot, the armies of Warhammer include troops riding horses, giant wolves, and other creatures. The term cavalry refers to riders mounted on horse-sized creatures which have only one wound in their profile. Bigger creatures are referred to as monsters and these have special rules as described later. Cavalry operates much in the same same as an infantry unit, although it moves faster than foot troops, and often the steeds ridden by the riders can fight as well. Rules for cavalry are discussed where appropriate.

A cavalry model is treated in all respects as a single model. Should the rider be slain the entire model is removed from battle. Cavalry models always use the rider's Leadership for all tests that require it. When the model is attacked, it is the rider's Toughness and Wounds that are used. The mount's Toughness, Wounds and Ld are never used, but are included on its profile because these creatures sometimes appear on their own.

War Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

These are usually huge, lumbering machineries of destruction, such as the Great Cannons of the Empire, Stone Throwers of the Orcs or bizarre and deadly Doomwheels of the Skaven. War machines are often fielded together with their crew and form a unit on their own. Some small war machines, such as Skaven Warpfire Throwers, are regarded as infantry instead of war machines and follow the rules that are given for infantry.

Chariots(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

Many races make use of chariots pulled by creatures such as horses, boars or reptilian Cold Ones. Chariots move faster than infantry, roughly at the same speed as cavalry. A chariot's crew, as well as the creatures pulling it, are considered an integral part of the chariot, and if it is destroyed they are killed along with it. Powerful characters can also ride in chariots. In most cases, chariots fight individually.

Monsters(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

Creatures such as Giants, Pegasus, Dragons, Chimeras or War Hydras are called monsters. These are creatures that fight as units of one model, and move individually, their size, strength and magical nature making them a match for units of lesser troops. Sometimes monsters are ridden by powerful Heroes, and follow a slightly different set of rules.

Banners, Musicians & Champions(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

Units of troops commonly include a Standard Bearer who carries the unit's banner and a Musician such as a hornblower or drummer. lt is also usual for units to be led by a Champion, an experienced and able warrior.

The Champion, Standard Bearer and Musician are placed in the front rank of the unit whenever possible. When a unit turns to face its side or rear, they are automatically rearranged in the new front rank.

As we shall see later, a unit can also be joined by a character, in which case these models are also arranged into the front rank alongside the Champion, Standard Bearer and Musician. Don't worry about this for now - the rules for characters are explained later.

Unit Strength(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

Warhammer has several rules (such as outnumbering, panic, etc) where the unit with greater impetus, size or hitting power gains an advantage over its opponents. To establish the relative power of all these different creatures, you need to determine Unit Strength. In most cases this is worked out by simply counting the number of models in a unit. However, some huge creatures such as Trolls, war machines, chariots, etc, are individually clearly more powerful than a single man on foot! These creatures have a different Unit Strength.

Troop TypeUnit Strength
All Infantry (Man-sized)*1
Characters on foot1
Unit flyers1
Cavalry (25mm x 50mm bases)2
Chariots4
War Machines (including crew)3
Large Infantry (40/50mm base)*3
MonstersStarting Wounds
Ridden Monsters1 per rider + Monster Unit Strength
Models not specified elsewhere1

* Ogres, Trolls, Minotaurs, Kroxigor, Chaos Spawn, Snotling bases, etc. Includes characters of these races. Excludes models that qualify as Monsters.

Unit The table that appears above gives you the Unit Strength value of each troop type. The Unit Strength listed is for each model in a unit. To figure out the Unit Strength of an entire regiment, count the number of models in the unit and multiply it with the appropriate number given. In the case of several types of models with different Unit Strengths in the same unit, simply add these together.

Eg, a unit of three Ogres has a Unit Strength of (3x3=9).

Unit Strength and Single Model's Movement(Warhammer Chronicles 2004, p. 114)

The following is an excerpt from page 114 of the Warhammer Chronicles 2004 release with an expanded explanation regarding Unit Strength and Single Model's Movement.

The Warhammer rulebook and a series of articles in White Dwarf have tried to clarify different Unit Strengths and the many subtle ways in which different single models relate to the Movement rules when they are moving on their own. Where models are ranked into units, they follow the normal rules for unit movement given in the Warhammer rulebook, except for skirmishers and fast cavalry which follow the rules detailed in their own sections.

The following chart and the notes below are the Warhammer team's last and final decision on such matters. They officially replace everything else that has been said on it and, we hope, will settle all discussions and become a most useful gaming aid.

Model Type

Movement

Unit Strength

Roughly man-sized. Square 20/25 mm base. On foot.

As skirmishers

1

Up to & including Ogre-sized.* Square 40/50 mm base. On foot.

As monsters

3

Monster (larger than Ogre-sized).** Any base/no base.

As monsters

Starting Wounds

Cavalry.*** 25 x 50 mm base.

As monsters

2

Chariots.

As monsters (no marching)

4

Ridden monsters/chariots.

As monsters/chariots

As monster/chariot +1

Move as Monsters: No need to turn or wheel - can pivot on the spot with no penalty but behave like units in all other respects (90° arc of sight, pay penalties for difficult terrain/obstacles, cannot march if within 8" of enemies at the beginning of the turn and may not turn if charged in the flanks or rear).

Move as Skirmishers: No need to turn or wheel, can pivot on the spot with no penalty, 360° arc of sight for charges, etc, no penalties for difficult terrain/obstacles, can march even if within 8" of enemies at the beginning of the turn, will line up to formed units charging them and not vice versa, & don't have front/flanks/rear until engaged in close combat.

Units of Flyers: Always count as skirmishers and always have a Unit Strength of 1 per model, regardless of size, wounds, etc. Can't fly in woods even if they move as skirmishers. Single flying models follow the rules for their type in the chart.

War Machines: Have a Unit Strength equal to the number of crew left. Move as skirmishers, with the exceptions noted in their rules.

* Includes Swarms, Chaos Spawn, etc.
** Includes Pegasi, Stegadon, Giants, etc.
*** Includes Flesh Hounds, Dire Wolves, Chaos Hounds, etc.

Facing(Main Rulebook, p. 40)

All models taking part in the battle are assumed to face directly forward from the front of their base. This applies equally to units of troops as to large monsters fighting on their own. This is important because a model can only see things that lie in a 90° arc in front of it. Being able to see the enemy is vital when it comes to shooting and deciding whether units can charge their foe.

The facing rule is shown on the diagram below. It is worth remembering this rule right from the start as it is very important.

Models can only see things that are within a 90° arc to their front.

The Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

Battles are fought between two opposing sides - two armies that will struggle for supremacy using all their armed might and cunning. The warring armies are commanded by kings and generals, wizards and heroes. Their model counterparts are commanded by you - the player.

In a real battle lots of things happen at once and it is very difficult to tell exactly how the battle is progressing at any one moment. The fortunes of each side sway throughout the battle as one side charges and men the other, roaring with fury and bloodlust as they throw themselves upon the enemy. Mighty war-engines lob their cargos of death towards their cowering foes and clouds of arrows darken the turbulent skies.

In Warhammer we represent the howling maelstrom of action in turns, in a similar way to chess or draughts. Each player takes one complete turn, then his opponent takes a turn. The first player then takes another turn, followed by the second player again, and so on: each player taking a turn one after the other until the battle is over.

To decide which side takes the first turn it is usual for both players to roll a D6 and the player who rolls highest goes first. See the Scenarios section for more about different ways of setting up a battle and deciding which side has the first turn.

Within the turn, actions are performed in a fixed order - this is called the turn sequence. Each turn is divided up into phases during which the player moves all his units, shoots all his missiles, resolves all close combat, and so on.

When it is your turn, it is up to you to keep track of where you are in the turn sequence. If you forget, your opponent should be able to remind you. Each turn is divided into the following phases. These phases are always completed in the order given below, and all actions in each phase must be resolved before moving onto the next phase.

Who Gets the First Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

Which player gets the first turn of the game can be determined in number of different ways. Normally both players roll a D6 and the player with the highest score can decide to move first or second. Sometimes the scenario you are playing will decide it for you.

Start of the Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

The rules often call upon a player to make tests or actions at the start of a turn. These are mostly psychology tests (as discussed in the Psychology section), or special rules that apply to a specific race such as the Animosity rule for Orcs & Goblins.

Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

During the Movement phase you may move your models as defined in the rules for movement.

Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

In the Magic phase your Wizards may cast spells. The full rules for spellcasting and magic are described later (see the Magic section).

Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

During the Shooting phase you may fire any missile weapons as described in the rules for shooting.

Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

During the Close Combat phase all troops in close combat fight. This is an exception to the normal turn sequence in that both sides fight, not just the side whose turn it is.

Improvising(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

Warhammer is an involving game, with many different races, weapons, and endless possibilities. In a game of this size and level of complexity there are bound to be certain occasions where a particular situation lies outside the rules as they are written. This is inevitable, as it would be impossible to cover every circumstance without writing many hundreds, if not thousands, of pages of dull and pedantic text. Warhammer players should feel free to improvise where necessary, resolving situations in a friendly and mutually agreeable manner, and evolving the game far beyond the published rules if they wish.

When you come across a situation in a battle that is not covered fully by the rulebook, be prepared to interpret a rule or come up with a suitable rule for yourselves.

When a situation of contention arises, players should agree on a fair and reasonable solution and get on with the game as quickly as possible. The most common way of resolving any disputes is for both players to roll a D6 to see whose interpretation applies in that instance.

After the game has finished, sit down and discuss what happened with your opponent and see if you can both reach an agreement incase the same situation ever arises again. Remember, you're playing to enjoy a challenging battle with friends, where the spirit of the game is more important than winning at any cost.

Exceptions(Main Rulebook, p. 42)

There are exceptions to the general turn sequence when things are worked out as they occur rather than in any strict order. Quite often the actions of one player will trigger the sudden appearance of a particular troop type, or activate some special weapon or occurrence. Examples of this are springing a bear trap or sinking into quicksand - consequences resulting from movement which may be conveniently resolved there and then. Inevitably, there will be the odd occasion when events can be worked out in one phase or another with little real difference.

Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 44)

During the Movement phase, or Move phase, you get the opportunity to move your forces around the battlefield. As with the turn sequence, the things that you can do within the Movement phase are performed in a strict order. An overview of each part of the sequence is given below and further rules governing movement are discussed in the section entitled Moving Troops.

  1. Declare Charges - If you want any of your troops to charge, you must declare this at the very start of the Movement phase.

  2. Rally Fleeing Troops - If any of your troops are fleeing, you can attempt to rally them after declaring charges.

  3. Compulsory Moves - Move troops that are subject to a compulsory movement rule.

  4. Move Chargers - Move charging troops and resolve other movement resulting from the charge.

  5. Remaining Moves - Move the rest of your troops.

Declare Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 44)

At the start of your Movement phase, the first thing you must do is declare which units will charge. Except in a few unusual circumstances explained later, you are never forced to charge. It is always your decision which units, if any, will charge the enemy.

However, charging is the only way that models are normally allowed to move into close combat. If you want to attack an enemy then you must charge him - you cannot simply move your model into close combat without declaring a charge first. All charges are declared at the start of your Movement phase, in any order you wish.

To declare a charge, indicate which unit is charging and nominate one enemy unit that it is going to attack. For example, you might declare that your Empire Knights unit is charging your opponent's Orc Warriors unit.

A unit may only declare a charge if at least one model in the unit can see at least one enemy model in the opposing unit. It is not necessary for every model to be able to see an enemy - the whole unit is able to charge the enemy so long as one model can do so. For line of sight see Facing.

An Orc chariot declares a charge against a regiment of Empire Archers. The Archers lie within the 90° arc of sight of the Orc chariot so it can see them. The Wyvern Rider is facing the wrong way so he can neither see nor charge the archers.
The first unit of Empire Knights can see and declare a charge upon the Goblin unit. The other unit of Knights is facing the wrong way, so they cannot charge the Goblins. Remember - only one model needs to see the enemy for the unit to declare a charge.

Troops can only charge up to a predetermined distance - this is called a charge move and is explained later. When you declare a charge you must do so without measuring the distance to the target, you must rely on your estimate of the distance to ensure that your troops can reach their target.

When deciding whether to charge you must also take into account any terrain that might slow you down, as described later. Deciding whether to charge or not calls for a good judgement of distances!

Charge Response(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

After you declare your charges, but before you measure whether chargers are within range, your opponent declares how each charged unit will respond. A charged unit has three response options: stand & shoot, hold, or flee. Units already engaged in close combat may only hold.

Stand & Shoot(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

lf the charged unit has missile weapons and the chargers are more than half their original charge move away, then troops can shoot at the chargers as they advance. For example, a unit of Knights with Move 7 can be shot at if they charge a unit of Archers that is more than 7" away, but cannot be shot at if it charges a unit 7" or less away. Work this out immediately before moving chargers - refer to the Shooting section for rules governing missile weapons.

Treat stand & shoot responses which fail to hit the enemy because chargers are too close, etc, as a hold response instead.

Hold(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

A unit can stand fast and receive the charge, representing individual troopers bracing themselves for the inevitable impact. This is the usual response of troops who do not have missile weapons or who are too close to the enemy to use them.

Flee(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

Flee means just that - when your unit sees the enemy thundering down upon them, they turn tail and run! This is a rather desperate option as once troops begin to run they tend to carry on going, and may run away from the battlefield altogether, whether you want them to or not.

As soon as a unit declares that it is fleeing, it is moved directly away from charging enemies by 2D6" if its Movement characteristic is 6" or less, or by 3D6" if its Move is more than 6". The fleeing unit is repositioned facing directly away from the chargers. Move the fleeing models immediately by the distance indicated by the dice roll. This is explained further in the rules for fleeing models in the Close Combat section.

Rallying(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

Having declared charges and charge responses, the player whose turn it is now has the opportunity to rally any of his units that are currently fleeing. Troops are normally forced to flee when they are defeated in close combat, if they are frightened by large monster, or if they have suffered some other unusually traumatic experience. Fleeing troops are of no fighting value unless they can be rallied, which means they come to their senses and stop fleeing in readiness to fight once more.

Because fleeing usually results from close combat the rules for fleeing troops can be found in the Close Combat section of this book. In the Rally phase of his turn, a player makes a test to determine whether his fleeing units manage to rally. If they rally then they remain where they are for the turn but may immediately adopt a new fighting formation facing in any direction. If the fleeing troops fail their Rally test and continue to flee then they are moved next along with other compulsory movement.

Move Chargers(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Once any compulsory moves are complete, it is time for the player to move any units that have declared a charge. They are moved one at a time, in the order that the charges were declared.

Chargers are moved towards their target in accordance with the movement rules given later. When troops charge, they move twice as fast as normal, representing a run or gallop, and this double speed move is called a charge move. For example, troops with a normal Move of 4" per turn have a charge move of 8".

Compulsory Moves(Main Rulebook, p. 45)

After the player has attempted to rally any units that are fleeing, it is time to make any compulsory moves that the rules require.

Generally speaking, a player can move his units how he wishes within the confines of the rules governing movement. However, sometimes troops go out of control for some reason, either because they are overcome by sheer terror, because they are compelled by magic, or because they are disorientated or confused. The player has no control over the movement of these troops and so these are referred to as compulsory moves.

The most common kind of compulsory move is fleeing. Fleeing troops always first flee away from their enemy and in subsequent turns towards the nearest table edge, and they always move a randomly determined distance.

All compulsory movement is done now before other movement takes place. This gives troops moving in this fashion the opportunity to get in the way, block lines of advance and do all sorts of other annoying things.

Flank & Rear Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Sometimes you may find that your models are able to charge an enemy unit in the flank or rear. This is particularly good because an attack from an unexpected direction will sometimes throw the enemy into a panic and might give you an advantage in combat, too. A charging unit's position at the start of the Movement phase determines whether it charges into the flank, the rear or the front of the enemy unit.

If the charging unit is in the target's frontal zone when the charge is declared then it charges into the front. As units generally begin the game facing each other, this is the most common situation that will arise. However, if the charging unit comes from the flank zone, it charges into the side; if in the rear zone, it charges into the rear. See the diagrams below for more clarification.

A unit's front, flank and rear zones extend out from its corners forming 4 quadrants of 90° as shown above.
A unit if front of its enemy will charge the front, a unit to the side will charge the flank, and a unit behind will charge in the rear, as shown in this example.
If a charging unit straddles two areas you must judge which area it is mostly in. If the situation is so close you can't determine where a unit should charge then roll a dice to decide.

Remaining Moves(Main Rulebook, p. 46)

Once compulsory moves and charges have been resolved, it is time to move the rest of your troops. Generally speaking, you do not have to move troops at all if you do not want to, or you can move them as short or as great a distance as you like up to their permitted maximum move distance. The rules governing movement, the encumbering effects of weighty barding, hindering terrain, obstacles to movement, and manoeuvering units around the battlefield are covered in the following section.

Moving Troops(Main Rulebook, p. 47)

This section contains all the common rules for moving armies on the tabletop. The same rules govern almost all movement, including the movement of chargers and most compulsory moves. Any exceptions that apply to chargers and fleeing troops are discussed separately. Also, a few creatures move in a special way, flying monsters for example. These are exceptions to the usual rules which, for the sake of convenience, are discussed elsewhere.

Moving an army is an important and often decisive part of the Warhammer game. When opposing commanders are well-matched, movement can be as challenging and as satisfying as a game of chess. However, unlike a chessboard, the tabletop is not divided into exact squares. Instead, movement is determined using a measuring tape or ruler.

The nature of the game, the varied terrain it is fought over and the stability of the models themselves means that it is impossible to be absolutely accurate about the movement of troops - the odd fraction of an inch will inevitably disappear as lines are neatened and models edged together. On the whole, this need not cause concern during play as it is better to keep the game flowing rather than worrying about unavoidable precision. It is recommended that where a move is especially important or an exact measurement is critical, it is good practice to agree what you are doing with your opponent before moving troops.

Movement Rate(Main Rulebook, p. 47)

The normal Movement rate of a model is defined by its Movement (M) characteristic value.

During their Movement phase, units can move up to their Movement rate in inches. For example, Men have a Movement characteristic of 4 and so many move up to 4". Elves, naturally faster and nimbler of foot, move up to 5". You do not have to move the full distance allowed, or even at all if you prefer, but you cannot move further than your normal Move rate unless charging, marching, pursuing or fleeing (all of these types of move are discussed later).

Troops riding mounts with barding move more slowly because the weight of their gear impedes movement. A cavalry mount with barding suffers a -1" move penalty.

For example a Knight riding a horse can normally move 8". If the horse is wearing barding then the Knight moves 8"-1" (for the horse's barding) which equals a move of 7".

Manoeuvre(Main Rulebook, p. 49)

Troops move and fight in a tight formation of one or more ranks. Such a formation is often referred to by an appropriate title such as a regiment or, in the case of cavalry, a squadron, or it can simply be called by the cover-all term — unit.

When a unit moves around the battlefield it must maintain its formation, which means that models are not free to wander off on their own. The formation can move straight forward as a body perfectly easily, but if it wishes to change direction then it must make a manoeuvre.

There are three specific types of manoeuvres that enable a unit to turn about or rearrange its ranks: wheel, turn and change formation. In addition there is a fourth special manoeuvre called reforming.

Wheel(Main Rulebook, p. 49)

To wheel, the leading edge of the formation moves forward, pivoting round one of the front corners. The unit swings round like the spoke of a wheel and completes the manoeuvre facing a different direction.

When it wheels, the entire unit counts as having moved as far as the outside model. Once the wheel is complete, you may use any movement that the unit has remaining.

For example, a unit of Empire Spearmen might wheel 2" to the left and move 2" straight forward, for a total move of 4".

A unit can wheel several times during its move as long as it has enough movement to do so and is not charging. A unit that is charging is only able to wheel once to align itself to the enemy, as described later.

To wheel, one edge of the formation is moved forward while leaving the opposite edge stationary to act as a pivot. The unit swings round rather like the spoke of a wheel and completes the manoeuvre facing a different direction. Here we see a unit making three wheels to move round a wood.

Change Formation(Main Rulebook, p. 49)

A unit of troops can also change its formation by adding or reducing the number of ranks in which it is deployed. For example, a unit that consists of two ranks may increase its depth to three ranks by moving models from the front two ranks to form a new third line.

A unit must surrender half of its move to either add or deduct one rank. A unit may add or deduct two ranks if it does not move at all.

When redeploying ranks in this way it is important to remember that a unit always has the same number of models in each rank, except for the rear rank which may contain the same or fewer models. A rear rank is still a rank whether it is full or contains only one model, although only ranks of four or more models are considered to be of any value in close combat, as described later.

A unit must surrender half of its move to either add or deduct one rank. A unit may therefore add or deduct two, ranks if it does not move at all.

Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 49)

To turn a unit, all the models remain in place but are turned around through 90° or 180° to face their side or rear. To make a turn, a unit must surrender a quarter of its move.

For example, a unit with a Move of 4" must give up 1" in order to turn.

A unit is allowed to turn several times during its move unless it is charging or marching.

When a unit is turned to face its side or rear, its leader is automatically rearranged into the front rank along with the Standard Bearer. Musician and any other characters that are in the unit. If there is not enough space within the ranks, models can be rearranged into the rear ranks as the player wishes.

To turn a unit all the models remain in place. but are turned round through 90° or 180° to face their side or rear. To make a turn a unit must surrender a quarter of its move — a unit with a move of 4" must give up 1" to turn for example.

Reform(Main Rulebook, p. 50)

A unit of troops can change the direction in which it is facing and rearrange its formation all at once by means of a manoeuvre called reforming. The leader issues the order to adopt a new formation and the troops mill about until they assume their new positions.

A unit of troops can reform during its Movement phase as long as it is not in close combat, and is otherwise free to move as it wishes. The player declares that the unit is reforming and regroups it into a new formation. Keeping the centre of the unit the same, arrange the unit into a new formation of as many ranks as you please facing whichever direction you wish, as long as none of the models in the unit move more than twice their Movement rate (ie, Men with Move 4 can move up to 8"). Character models, Standard Bearers and Musicians must still be placed in the front rank of the unit as normal.

A unit which reforms cannot move that turn because it takes the entire Movement phase to reform. Also, reforming troops cannot shoot with missile weapons that turn because they are too busy assuming their new formation. Other actions, such as Wizards casting spells, are still allowed.

Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 50)

Troops only move their full Movement rate over unobstructed ground. They will slow down if impeded by broken ground such as bushes or woods. Terrain is divided into four types to simulate this: open, difficult, very difficult & impassable terrain.

Open Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 50)

Open terrain is clear ground that doesn't impede movement at all. The battlefield is basically all open terrain unless otherwise indicated. This will normally include hills, as long as they are not too steep, as well as features such as roads, paths, gateways and other firm surfaces.

Difficult Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 50)

Difficult terrain includes the following:

  • Brush, scrub and other clinging vegetation.

  • Debris, wreckage, loose rocks and boulders.

  • Fords, streams and shallow water.

  • Marshes, bogs and thick mud.

  • Freshly ploughed, flooded and muddy fields.

  • Sand dunes and areas of deep sand.

  • Stairs, steps and ladders.

  • Steep or treacherous slopes. This can include particular hills if both players agree before the game, otherwise hills are considered to be open terrain.

  • Woods, orchards, growing crops and dense foliage.

Troops cross difficult ground at half speed, so if your unit has Move 4 then it can only move 2" in a wood.

If troops move over open ground and difficult terrain during the same turn, then their movement over open ground is at full speed and movement over difficult ground is reduced to half speed as normal. For example, a Man moves 2" across open ground and then enters a wood. He now has 2" of his move left. This is covered at half speed as it is difficult terrain, so he can only move a further 1" through the wood.

Very Difficult Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 51)

Very difficult terrain includes areas that are even more arduous to move through, such as the following:

  • Thick woods packed with briars and thorns.

  • Almost sheer slopes that need to be climbed on bands and knees.

  • Fast flowing but still fordable rivers.

Very difficult terrain reduces movement to quarter speed. Fractions are rounded up to the nearest 1/2" to prevent unnecessary complication.

Impassable Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 51)

lmpassable terrain is terrain so difficult to move through that it cannot be crossed during the course of a battle. It includes terrain features such as rivers, lakes, impenetrable swamps and sheer cliffs. Troops must go round impassable terrain.

Players should decide before the battle begins whether certain terrain features will be difficult, very difficult or impassable during the course of the battle.

Obstacles(Main Rulebook, p. 51)

Obstacles are things such as hedges, fences, walls and trenches that troops must clamber over to cross. Although obstacles may be similar in some respects to difficult ground, in that a hedge and a wood might both contain trees, there is an important difference. Obstacles are basically linear barriers, such as a wall, which troops must cross over before they can proceed. Difficult terrain describes an area of ground such as a bog or marsh that slows down a unit's overall speed.

It takes a model half of its move to cross an obstacle. So if a model has Move 4 it must surrender 2" to cross a hedge or a wall. If a model has insufficient move left to cross an obstacle it has reached then it must halt in front of it. The model does not count as being half way across if it has 1" of its 4" Move remaining, for example. Where an entire unit of troops is attempting to cross an obstacle, the penalty continues to apply to the whole unit as long as any of the models are crossing.

Sometimes the front of a unit may end up on one side of a linear obstacle and the back part on the other side. This is fine. Place the part of the unit which has crossed on the far side of the obstacle and leave the part that has yet to cross on the other side. As long as the ranks on both sides are in contact with the obstacle, this is perfectly acceptable. Once troops have moved over the obstacle, the unit's ranks are returned to base contact. Remember that the unit suffers a half move penalty until all its troops have crossed the obstacle.

If a wall, hedge or fence has a gate in it then it is assumed to be open unless otherwise agreed, and troops may move through the gate without penalty.

If a unit's formation is divided by an obstacle then it may not manoeuvre by turning or wheeling, and it may not change its formation. The unit must cross the obstacle before it can do any of these things.

Bear in mind that a unit of troops can suffer from reduced speed for moving over difficult terrain and the half Move penalty for crossing an obstacle. If troops are moving at half their normal speed, of 2" across difficult terrain (eg, a freshly ploughed field) they must still surrender a half of their move to cross a hedge or fence, a -1" penalty in this case.

Charging(Main Rulebook, p. 52)

Chargers are moved after compulsory movement and before you move the rest of your army. Make sure you complete all charges before moving other troops. Chargers move at double their normal Move rate, but must make the usual deductions for crossing terrain and obstacles. For example, mounted Knights have Move 7 and so can charge up to 14". If moving over difficult terrain, such as a muddy field, they move at half their speed, reducing their charge distance to 7".

Before you move a charging unit check that your opponent has declared his response and that troops electing to flee have been moved and troops electing to stand & shoot have done so. Measure the distance between the chargers and their target.

A Failed Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 52)

If the enemy has fled, or if you have estimated your charge incorrectly, your troops might not be able to move far enough to reach their intended target. If this is the case, the charge has failed.

If a charge fails, the unit is moved at its normal Move rate rather than double speed. The unit is moved directly towards the intended target as if it were charging but halts once it has covered its normal Move distance. This represents when troops have begun to charge before realising it is impossible to reach their enemy; consequently their movement peters out as they lose impetus and enthusiasm.

A unit that fails its charge cannot shoot missile weapons that turn, though Wizards may cast spells.

The Knights have declared a charge against the Orcs. The Knights' normal move is 7", so they can charge up to 14". The player measures the distance and finds the Orcs are 15" away — disaster! As the charge has failed the unit must now move towards the Orcs as if it were charging, but must halt once it has covered its normal Move distance of 7".

Manoeuvring During a Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 52)

A charging unit cannot turn or change formation. This is because the troops are running or galloping once the charge has begun and are unable to execute delicate manoeuvres even if they were able to hear the orders of their leaders above the din.

The following rules govern manoeuvres during a charge:

  1. When a unit charges an enemy the player must endeavour to bring as many models from the charging unit into combat as possible. This can sometimes be achieved by moving the chargers straight forward, but often it will be necessary to wheel slightly to face the enemy. This is a very important rule, so be sure to get it right from the start!

  2. During a charge a unit can wheel once. It can, and indeed must, wheel in order to maximise the number of charging models able to fight. Note that the unit does not have to wheel if this would mean that it cannot reach its enemy.

If chargers need to wheel towards their target, execute the wheel as already described, measuring the distance wheeled as you normally would. This distance counts as part of the total distance charged. for example, if a unit can charge 12" it might wheel 4" to bring models to face the enemy and then move up to 8" towards them.

Once a unit has completed any required wheel it is moved straight forward cowards the enemy and stops as soon as the two units touch.

Aligning the Combatants(Main Rulebook, p. 53)

Once the charging unit is in contact it is automatically aligned against its enemy as shown in the diagram below to form a battle line. This extra alignment move is free.

If it is unpractical to align a unit properly because of interposing terrain, other models, or whatever, then it is acceptable to re-align the charged unit as well (or instead) so that the battle lines remain neat. A confusing situation may arise when interposing terrain or models make it impossible to align the whole unit, for example. Rather than clutter the rules with endless clarifications, we have included further examples in the back of this book.

A unit of Knights charges an Orc regiment. The Knights charge forward until the edge of their formation touches the Orcs'. The Knights are automatically aligned along the enemy's front to form a battle line. Note that this extra alignment move is free, and might result in the most distant Knights moving further than their charge move.

Moving Engaged Units(Main Rulebook, p. 53)

Once opposing units are engaged in close combat they may not move away until one side or the other breaks or is destroyed. Units already engaged in close combat at the start of their turn cannot move but must continue to fight in the Close Combat phase.

Charge Reactions(Main Rulebook, p. 53)

If a charged unit stands & shoots, it is possible that it may cause sufficient casualties on the charging unit to force an immediate Panic test. Panic tests and other special psychological tests are explained in the Psychology section. This might result in a charge being brought to a halt before contact is made with the enemy. That is why it is important to work out fire from enemies who stand & shoot before moving chargers. If the chargers are out of missile range at the beginning of their charge then work our missile casualties at the maximum range of die weapon.

If a charged unit flees as it is charged then it will move directly away from its chargers either 2D6" or 3D6" depending on whether its Movement rate is up to 6" or more than 6", as explained later. It may be that fleeing troops move too far for the chargers to catch them, in which case the chargers move their normal Move rate exactly as for any other failed charge.

If fleeing troops do not move far enough away to avoid their attackers then they are in deep trouble! If the chargers have sufficient movement to catch them then the entire fleeing unit is destroyed. The chargers only need to catch one model to destroy the whole unit as it flees. Chargers move their full charge move, moving past the point where the enemy was caught if necessary. The fleeing troops are run into the ground or scattered beyond any hope of recovery. See the rules for fleeing troops in the Close Combat section for more details.

Redirecting a Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 53)

If a charged unit flees, it can happen that another enemy unit is now within the charging unit's reach. If this fresh enemy unit is within range then the player is allowed to redirect the charge, though he does not have to. He must declare that his unit is charging against the new target, and the target must make a response as normal. If this unit flees as well then the charging player is not allowed to redirect his charge again.

If there is a choice of units that can be charged, the charging unit must go after an enemy that is nearest to the original target unit.

The target unit flees away from the charge revealing another unit behind. The chargers can redirect the charge onto the second unit if the player wishes.

Oddball Stuff(Main Rulebook, p. 54)

A charge can sometimes trigger extra movement from the enemy. For example, Goblin Fanatics will leap out of their units as soon as enemy approach within 8". This happens out of the normal sequence: the charge is halted as soon as the chargers move within 8" and the Goblin Fanatics are moved and any damage they cause is worked out straight away. It is up to the player to say that he has out of sequence movements or actions to perform at the appropriate moment.

Flank & Rear Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 54)

Being charged from a direction you cannot see and thought was safe is a frightening thing for even the bravest of troops. With his field of vision narrowed by his position in the ranks, the average soldier has only a limited knowledge of what is happening on the battlefield. If the enemy has somehow got round behind him he might reasonably assume that the battle is lost. Doubt will be sown in his mind and he may become disoriented and confused. His fighting efficiency may even become impaired. If he is fighting in close combat, he might panic and flee, thinking that the enemy is upon his unguarded back.

Individual models can turn to face the chargers and avoid this test and any other penalties, unless they are already engaged in close combat.

Panic(Main Rulebook, p. 54)

Troops who are charged in the flank or rear whilst they are already fighting other enemy who engaged them on the previous turn(s) must take a Panic test to see whether their nerve holds, as described later. This test is taken as soon as it is established that chargers are within range, but before moving any troops. The rules for Panic tests and other psychological tests are explained in full in the section on Psychology.

Combat Bonus(Main Rulebook, p. 54)

If a unit is charged in the flank or rear by a unit with a unit strength of five or more then it loses any rank bonuses that it would otherwise have in close combat. Units that are ranked up in depth normally fight better because the troops in the rear ranks are able to physically support those in the front, lending their weight to the formation, but a unit which is charged in the flank or rear will lose this advantage. See the Close Combat section for details of combat results and how rank bonuses work. If a unit is attacking an enemy in the flank or rear, it gains the advantage of fighting a formation unprepared to fight in that direction. Consequently, the attackers receive extra combat bonuses, as described in the Close Combat section.

Marching(Main Rulebook, p. 54)

Marching troops move at twice their normal Movement rate with weapons sheathed or shouldered. They are literally 'going at the double'. A unit that is on the march is not prepared for combat so marching is not suitable for a unit that is close to the enemy. In reality, no troops would approach the enemy with their weapons unready to defend or attack with.

Troops can march if there are no enemy models within 8" of them at the start of the turn. If there are enemy models (fleeing enemies do not count) anywhere within 8" at the start of the turn, the unit is too busy preparing to fight and so cannot march. Note that the marching unit can move closer than 8" to an enemy as it moves.

A unit on the march cannot change formation or turn as this would disrupt its movement. It can wheel as normal, as you might imagine a column of troops would in order to follow a route or path, for example.

A marching unit cannot move through difficult or other obstructive terrain or cross obstacles. It must stop if it comes to these features.

A unit that is on the march cannot shoot missile weapons during the Shooting phase. It is unprepared for combat and any weapons it carries are not ready to be used. Any Wizards with the unit can still cast spells.

Individual Models(Main Rulebook, p. 55)

Units which consist of models that move individually, such as Giants or large monsters with or without riders, can march move in the same way as units of troops.

In the case of individual models their speed bonus is not due to them 'marching' in formation but takes account of their freedom to move, breaking into a run, and so forth.

Snaking(Main Rulebook, p. 55)

A unit deployed in a column with models lined up one behind the other can move very easily. The lead model is not restricted by troops either side and so can choose a snaking path which twists about. This is called snaking. Trailing models are placed so that they follow the path of the lead model. This a special type of movement unique to long lines of troops. It isn't a very practical formation for fighting, but it is very handy for threading your way through buildings and between obstacles.

1" Apart(Main Rulebook, p. 55)

Players will sometimes find that the movement of troops results in the tabletop becoming quite crowded, especially when several different units are engaged in close combat fighting. It is obviously important to establish what units are actually fighting and which are close by but not engaged, eg, perhaps merely passing by.

For this reason, opposing troops are kept at least 1" apart when they are not fighting. Models which would otherwise approach to within 1" of an enemy without engaging them are simply halted 1" away. Remember that units may only engage in close combat by means of a charge, except in exceptional circumstances. These are clearly indicated in the rules.

This rule is ignored during charge moves - a charging unit may approach within 1" of any enemy. This is done for the purposes of game mechanics.

Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 55)

After movement is resolved, it is time for the Magic phase. If you are new to the Warhammer game we recommend that you ignore magic for now and familiarise yourself with the rules for shooting and close combat.

Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 58)

Once the Movement and Magic phases are over, it is time to work out any shooting that is to be done. Troops armed with bows, crossbows or other missile weapons may shoot at any enemy targets they can see. Unless otherwise mentioned, each model can only make one shooting attack in each Shooting phase. You may also shoot with any war machines such as stone throwers, cannons, etc. The rules for these are covered later.

You always start shooting with any weapons that require you to guess the range of the shot (such as cannons and stone throwers for example). Guess all the ranges of these before measuring any of them. Otherwise, there is no particular order in which shooting must be resolved.

Nominate one of your units that you want to shoot with and select the enemy target you wish to shoot at. For example, in the situation shown in the diagram below, you might choose to shoot with your Empire Archers at the Goblin Wolf Riders or the unit of Goblin Spearmen. Once you have declared your target, measure the range and resolve shooting using the rules described. Continue until you have shot with everything able to do so, including any war machines you may have.

The unit of Empire Archers can shoot at the Goblin Wolf Riders or the Goblin Spearmen.


Range(Main Rulebook, p. 58)

All missile weapons have a maximum range which indicates the greatest distance that they can shoot. If your declared target lies beyond this maximum range, your shots will automatically miss. This is why you must pick your target before measuring the range.

Missile Weapon

Range

Short Bow

16"

Bow

24"

Long Bow

30"

Crossbow

30"

Repeating Crossbow

24"

Sling

18"

Javelin

8"

Thrown Weapon (axe, knife, dart)

6"

Handgun

24"

Pistol

8"

For example: The Empire player is using bows, which have a range of 24". He declares that he is opening fire on the nearest Orc unit. When he measures the distance, he finds that the Orcs are 25" away. His hail of arrows therefore falls short of the jeering greenskins.

It often happens that some models in a firing unit will be within range and other models in the unit will be out of range. If this is the case then only those which are in range can shoot and the remainder automatically miss.

These ranges are the maximum distances that the weapons can fire. Missiles lose power and accuracy long before they reach their maximum range, so ranges are divided into two types: short range and long range.

Short range is up to and including half the maximum range of the weapon.

Long range is between half and maximum distance of the weapon.

For example: Short range for a short bow is up to 8". A target that is at more than 8" counts as being at long range.

As we shall see later, there are modifiers that make it much more difficult for a weapon to hit a target at long range.

Who Can Shoot and Line of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 59)

The direction of the front of the model's base is assumed to be the actual direction faced by the creature it represents. Common sense dictates that a model cannot shoot at something it cannot see. To represent this, a target must lie within a 90° arc projected from the front of the shooter. Where models are on square bases, this can be imagined easily by projecting a line through the corners. This is called the line of sight and it determines which opponents the model can shoot at or charge.

Models can only see things that are within a 90° arc to their front.

A shooter's line of sight may be blocked if there is anything between him and his intended target which obscures his line of sight. Thus, interposing models or scenery may block a model's line of sight to a target. Because of this, except as noted later, only models in the front rank of a unit are able to shoot, as those behind will not be able to see past their friends.

Imagine a real battlefield with its contours, morning mists and haze of dust. Picture the woods and hedges that obscure vision, the sudden fall of ground that hides the enemy, and the distances that blur friend with foe. Towering over our miniature battlefield we are unaware of all this, but the troops represented by our models would not be so lucky. Just as their real life counterparts cannot see through hills or hedges, we must assume that our models cannot see behind corresponding scenic features.

As it is impossible for us to say exactly what everyone's scenery looks like, it is not practical to be definitive about which kinds of terrain block line of sight. You must be prepared to use your own judgement within the following guidelines.

Perhaps the easiest way of checking what a model can see is to get down over the table and take a model's eye view, but be reasonable about this, as in reality it would be much more difficult to see enemy troops than over a perfectly flat, mist-free gaming table.

Hills, large boulders and buildings obscure sight over level ground. If an interposing hill or house completely obscures a line of sight to a model on the other side of it, you may not see through it and so cannot shoot at the model on the other side.

Hedges and walls block line of sight over level ground. However, a model placed directly behind and touching an obstacle is assumed to be able to see and shoot over the obstacle, with head and shoulders clearly visible. Such a model can shoot but also be seen and shot at.

Woods block line of sight if the shooter and the target lie on either side of the wood. It is only possible to see through up to 2" of woodland, so if a model inside a wood is within 2" of the edge, he can see out and shoot and he can also be seen and shot at (a -1 penalty applies). If it is further than 2" inside the wood, a model neither be seen by models outside nor can he see them. If both target and shooter are inside the wood then the missile range is reduced to the farthest they can see - which is 2".

Troops, either friendly or unfriendly, block line of sight. It is not possible to shoot directly through one model to hit another. This does not apply if a target behind normal-sized models (such as Men or Orcs) is defined as a large target. Snotlings or Goblins can't block line of sight to a Giant, for example! This works vice versa - a Dragonrider, for example, can shoot at targets over interposing friendly models which are not large.

Note that this does not allow large creatures to charge through any interposing models!

Hills & Elevated Positions(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

Hills are tactically important positions, overlooking the entire battlefield and giving war machines and missile-armed troops an excellent opportunity to shoot at the enemy. Many battles have been won or lost depending on a General's ability to exploit the tactical use of hills.

Missile Fire from Hills(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

Troops on a hill can draw a line of sight from an elevated position. To determine what the troops can see, you should get down over the table and take a model's eye view. Therefore, most of the time your troops may be able to see over troops that are on the ground below, and over other obstacles that are lower down the hill.

Troops on a hill are considered to be in a good position to fire, so can fire with one additional rank compared to missile-armed troops on flat ground. This means that most bowmen can shoot with two ranks if they are on a hill.

A unit of Empire Archers are deployed on a flat-topped hill. They can shoot with two ranks if they choose to target the Spearmen on ground level. However, the Spearmen who are on the same hill as the Archers are not on lower ground and therefore the Archers can only shoot at them with a single rank as normal.

Cover(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

Troops who are in base contact behind certain terrain features, such as hedges or walls, can take advantage of cover. This makes them harder to hit because they can duck back out of the way, leaving arrows to splinter against a wall or tree. There are two sorts of cover: hard cover and soft cover.

Hard Cover(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

This offers real physical protection as well as partially concealing the target from view. The corner of a building, a large rock, walls and wooden palisades are all types of hard cover. Troops positioned at windows and doors also count as being behind hard cover.

A model positioned at the corner of a building so that he is peeking round is protected by hard cover and models in trenches or pits are also in hard cover.

Soft Cover(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

Although it partially shields a target from view, soft cover provides scant protection against incoming missiles. You can hide behind a hedge, but a crossbow bolt or arrow will go straight through it. Hedges and woodland provide soft cover and troops within woods automatically count as being in soft cover.

Shooting & Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

Units in hand-to-hand fighting are far too busy to use missile weapons and therefore may not shoot.

Players are not allowed to shoot at targets that are engaged in close combat. The risk of hitting their own comrades is far too high.

Templates(Main Rulebook, p. 60)

Sometimes some weapons (such as stone throwers) may deviate and hit units already in close combat. As described later, some of these weapons utilise a template to determine how many models are hit by a falling stone, a gout of Dragon fire and so on. Normally, models under templates are considered targets and will be hit. See the section on War Machines for details.

If a template ends up in such a way that it touches only models from one side, and none of the models it touches are actually fighting (ie, in base contact with their enemy), then all casualties are worked out exactly as normal. The shot has struck in such a way that all hits fall on that unit.

If a template ends up so that it touches models from either side that are fighting, or models from both sides whether fighting or not, then work out the number of hits as normal but distribute them equally to both sides. The shot has fallen in the thick of the fighting and both sides suffer the consequences.

Stand & Shoot(Main Rulebook, p. 61)

If a charge is declared against a unit with missile weapons it can respond by shooting at the charging unit but only if the charging unit is more than half its charge distance away. This reaction is called stand & shoot. The shots are worked out once all charges have been declared and before the chargers are moved. Work out the shots at the measured range and apply the -1 to hit modifier for shooting at a charging target.

A unit which stands & shoots does so out of the normal turn sequence, in the other side's Movement phase before chargers are moved. Note that chargers who begin their move within half their charge distance of the enemy cannot be shot at in this way. They are too close, and there is insufficient time for the unit to shoot at their enemy.

If the chargers start their charge beyond the maximum range of the shooting unit's missile weapons, the shots are made at the maximum range of the weapons. The archers let loose as soon as their enemies are within range.

Dividing Shots(Main Rulebook, p. 61)

In most circumstances, a unit of troops takes aim and shoots at a single target, such as a unit of enemy troops, a huge monster or chariot, obeying the command of their leader who is assumed to direct the unit's fire.

A unit may divide its fire between two or more enemy targets if it is impossible for all the models to shoot at a single target. For example, it might be that no single target is visible to all shooters either because it is obscured or because it is so close to the unit that it lies outside the arc of vision of some of the shooting models.

In the case of individual enemy models, such as large monsters, Heroes, Goblin Fanatics and similar, it is permitted to divide shots against these and other more distant targets, even if the entire unit could shoot against the single enemy model. This allows shooting unit to spread its fire against a group of single models.

Hitting the Target(Main Rulebook, p. 61)

The chance of a shooter scoring a hit on his target depends on his Ballistic Skill, or BS. The higher the individual's Ballistic Skill, the greater his chance of hitting.

To determine whether you hit, you must roll a D6 for each model that is shooting. Note that the number of Attacks a model has will not affect the number of shots - each shooter can shoot only once unless the weapon he carries has a special rule which allows it to fire more rapidly.

Count how many models in your unit are shooting and roll that number of dice. It is easiest to roll all the dice at once, although you don't have to. If there are a lot of models shooting, you might need to roll several batches of dice. The following table shows the minimum D6 score you will need to hit.

Ballistic Skill12345678910
To Hit Score6543210-1-2-3

If you score equal to or greater than the number required, you have hit. If you score less, you have missed.

For example: You fire with five Goblin Archers. Goblins have BS 3, so you need a score of at least 4 to hit. You roll 5 dice and score 1, 2, 2, 4, and 6 which equals 2 hits and 3 misses.

Of course, you cannot roll less than 1 on a D6, so troops with BS 6 or more will have a negative to hit score. However, in Warhammer no troops ever hit automatically, so a roll of 1 on a D6 always fails, regardless of the dice modifiers and Ballistic Skill of the model.

To Hit Modifiers(Main Rulebook, p. 62)

Shooting isn't simply a matter of pointing your weapon at the target and letting fly. Factors other than your Ballistic Skill affect the chance of hitting, such as range and cover as already discussed. There are other factors too, some of which make it easier to hit and others that make it harder. These are called To Hit modifiers, and they are cumulative.

Factors that make it easier are added to your dice roll. Factors that make it harder are subtracted from your dice roll.

All shooting to hit modifiers are cumulative. So, if you are shooting at long range at a target behind soft cover, your chance of hitting is reduced by -2. This means that with BS 5 you would need to roll a 4 to hit instead of the 2 normally required.

For example: Ten Goblin Archers fire at a unit of Elves. Their targets are 10" away. To make matters worse, the Elves are standing behind a hedge - soft cover! The Goblins are armed with short bows, so their targets are at long range (short range for these weapons is 8" or less). Because their BS is 3, the Goblins need 4s to hit, but since their targets are in cover and at long range, they suffer a penalty of -2. So each archer needs to roll a 6 to hit (6-2=4). The player rolls ten dice and manages to get two 6s - two hits!

+1 Shooting at a Large Target

A large target is anything which in real life would be massively tall or which is especially bulky. Giants are large targets, for example, while Men, Orcs, Elves, Ogres, Cannons and the vast majority of troops are not. In every case, a creature's description in the relevant Army book will inform you whether it is a large target or not. Cavalry riders are not considered to be large targets if they are riding horses, wolves, boars or comparable beasts. Dragons, Greater Daemons and certain war machines are large targets.

-1 Shooting While Moving

If the shooter moved during the Movement phase (or during the Magic phase via the effect of a spell) then his chance of hitting is reduced. Even a simple turn or change of formation is enough to reduce his concentration and so counts as movement for this purpose.

-1 Shooting at a Charging Enemy

If a model is charged and elects to stand & shoot at his attacker than his chance of hitting is reduced. While the enemy thunders towards him, his aim will be distracted and his hot hurried as he abandons his weapon to take up a sword.

-1 Shooting at Long Range

If the target lies at over half your maximum range you are less likely to hit. Sometimes you will find some of the shooters are within short range and some are at long range. If this is the case, you must roll two batches of dice, one for each range band.

-1 Shooting at a Single Model or at Skirmishers

If the target is a single man-sized model (including characters) on foot then this penalty applies. The penalty also applies when shooting at enemy in a skirmish formation or at any single man-sized model on its own. See the section on Heroes and Wizards for a complete explanation of the rules for shooting at character models, and see the section on Skirmishers for rules regarding skirmishing troops.

-1 Target is Behind Soft Cover

If the target is behind soft cover then the chance of hitting it is reduced.

-2 Target is Behind Hard Cover

If the target is behind hard cover, the chance of hurting it is drastically reduced.

7+ To Hit(Main Rulebook, p. 63)

If to hit modifiers result in a required score of 7 or more when shooting than it is still possible to score a hit, though very unlikely. As it is impossible to roll a 7 on a D6, you will first need to roll a 6 and then, for each shot scoring a 6, you will need to roll a further score as shown on the chart below. So, for example, in order to score an 8, you must roll a 6 followed by a 5 or more. If you require a score of 10 or more than it is impossible to hit the intended target.

7

6 followed by a 4, 5 or 6

8

6 followed by a 5 or 6

9

6 followed by a 6

10+

Impossible!

Wound(Main Rulebook, p. 63)

Not all hits will wound their target - some alight glance off armour or merely graze their target. Some creature are so tough that arrows do not easily pierce their flesh, or are so resilient that they are able to ignore missiles sticking out of their body. Once you have hit your target, roll again to see if he has been wounded. To do this compare the weapon's Strength with the target's Toughness. The Strength values of common missile weapons are given below; the target's Toughness '1', is included in its profile.

A\T12345678910
14566NNNNNN
234566NNNNN
3234566NNNN
42234566NNN
522234566NN
6222234566N
72222234566
82222223456
92222222345
102222222234

Roll a D6 for each hit scored and consult the Wound chart above. Find the weapon's Strength and look down that row. Then scan along to the column for the target's Toughness. The number is the minimum, score on a D6 needed to score a wound. Where the value is 'N' this indicates that the target is too tough for you to hurt. Stands for no effect - or no chance!

Weapon Strength(Main Rulebook, p. 63)

The following examples show the strength of various missile weapons. They are included here as examples: the section on weapons describes all missile and close combat weapons in more detail.

WeaponStrength
Shortbow3
Bow3
Longbow3
Repeater Crossbow3
Sling3
Crossbow4
Handgun4

Continuing our earlier example: The Goblin player, having scored 2 hits on the Elves, consults the table. His ladz' short bows are S3. The Elves are T3. He sees that be needs to roll 4s or more to wound an Elf He rolls a 4 and a 2, wounding one Elf.

Saves(Main Rulebook, p. 64)

If a creature is wounded by a hit, it still has a chance of avoiding damage by making a save roll on a D6. There are two types of saves: armour saves and Ward saves. These are explained below.

Armour Save(Main Rulebook, p. 64)

Models that are wounded still have a chance to avoid damage if they are wearing armour or carrying shields, or if they are riding a horse or similar creature. These models have an armour saving roll.

Roll a D6 for each wound suffered by your troops. If you roll greater than or equal to the model's armour save, the wound has been deflected by its armour.

For example: A warrior carrying a shield and wearing light armour has an armour save of 5+, so be must roll a 5 or 6 to be saved by his armour.

Cavalry models automatically have an armour save of 6 even if the rider is wearing no armour. This represents the extra protection afforded by the mount. If the rider is armoured then his armour save will be +1 better than it would be if he were on foot.

For example, a Man wearing light armour and carrying a shield has an armour save of 5+ on foot and 4+ when mounted. Note that this bonus only applies to cavalry and not to characters or other models riding monsters. Rules for monsters and riders are discussed in the section on Monsters.

To continue our example from above, the Goblin archers have scored 1 wound on the Elf troops. Since the Elves are wearing light armour and have shields their armour saving throw is 5+. The Elf player rolls a 2. Not surprisingly he has failed. If he had scored a 5 or 6, the arrow would have bounced off and the Elf would have been unharmed.

Armour Worn

Armour Save

Armour Save if Cavalry

None

None

6+

Shield or light armour

6+

5+

Shield & light armour or heavy armour only

5+

4+

Shield & heavy armour

4+

3+

Riders with shields & heavy armour, riding armoured mounts

-

2+

Armour Save Modifiers(Main Rulebook, p. 64)

Some weapons or creatures are so powerful that they can punch right through armour, so armour provides less protection against them. Such attacks confer modifiers that are subtracted from the foe's armour saving throw. This is shown by the table below.

For example: A crossbow (S4) hits a warrior wearing light armour and shield. Normally he would need to roll 5 or 6 to make his save and avoid taking the wound but, because of the crossbow's enormous hitting power, -1 is subtracted from his dice roll. There, he must now roll a 6 to save.

Strength

Armour Save Reduction

3 or less

None

4

-1

5

-2

6

-3

7

-4

8

-5

9

-6

10

-7

Maximum Save(Main Rulebook, p. 64)

Observant readers will have noticed that the best save on the Armour saves chart is a 2+ on a D6 but it is possible to get a better save. Magic armour is one way to improve the wearer's armour save to 1+ or even less! However a roll of 1 will always fail, so even a model with a 1+ or better armour save will suffer a wound if it rolls 1 when taking its armour save.

The advantage of a 1+ save is that it offers better protection against weapons with save modifiers. For example, a model with a 2+ save hit by a S4 attack saves on a 3+, while a model with a 1+ save will save on a 2+.

Ward Saves(Main Rulebook, p. 64)

Some troops types and creatures are protected by more than mere physical armour. They may be shielded by magical charms or blessings, given protection by the gods of the Warhammer world, or perhaps they are just astoundingly lucky.

Models with this sort of protection are referred to as having a Ward save or Ward. This type of save is quite different from an armour save and it is very important to understand the difference from the beginning.

Wards represent magical or divine protection which can save a warrior when armour would be of no use at all. Unlike an armour save, a Ward is never modified by Strength modifiers, etc. Even if a hit ignores all armour saves, a model with a Ward may still try to make its Ward save as normal. A model may only ever make one Ward save against each wound it has suffered.

Sometimes a model has both an armour save and a ward save. In this case, the model must take the armour save first and, if it is failed, the model is allowed to try to make a Ward save. No model can ever try to make more than one Ward save against a wound it has suffered. If a model has two Ward saves for any reason, use the better Ward save.

Removing Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

Most human-sized troops can only sustain one wound before they fall casualty. Some models can take several wounds before they become casualties, but these are the exceptions rather than the norm. The number of wounds a model can sustain before it falls casualty is indicated by its Wounds value or 'W' on its profile.

Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

Where troops have only a single wound, casualties are removed as follows. If a unit of troops is hit and suffers wounds which it does not save then for each wound, one model is removed as a 'kill'. Although it is convenient to think of casualties as slain, individual warriors are not necessarily dead, they may be temporarily knocked out, incapacitated, or simply too badly wounded to carry on fighting. For our purposes, the result is the same so we treat all casualties as if they were killed and remove them.

Although casualties would really fall amongst the front rank, for the purposes of gameplay remove models from the rear rank of the unit. This keeps the formation neat and represents rear rankers stepping forward to cover gaps in the line. If the unit is deployed in a single rank then casualties are removed roughly equally from either end, representing the troops gathering about their leader and standard.

Multiple Wound Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

If models have more than 1 Wound, casualties are removed as follows. Imagine that a unit of Minotaurs suffers 5 wounds from arrow fire. Minotaurs are huge creatures and each model has 3 Wounds. The arrows would fall randomly among the unit, possibly wounding several creatures, but for our purposes we shall remove whole models where possible. So, 5 wounds equals 1 model dead (3 wounds) with 2 wounds left over. The wounds left over are not enough to remove another model, so the player must make a note that 2 wounds have been suffered by the unit. If the unit takes another wound from some other attack then another Minotaur model is removed. lt is obviously important to keep a record of wounds taken by units such as this.

Cavalry Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

In the case of cavalry models, all shots are worked out against the rider. If the rider is slain, the mount is removed as well. This is a convenient and practical way of representing cavalry, as it dispenses with the need for individual dismounted riders and loose mounts. Obviously some riders are dead, horses bolt and run away, and some mounts are killed, throwing their riders to the ground. But these things can be left to the imagination while models are removed as a single piece. Note that this only applies to ordinary cavalry (mounts which have 1 Wound) and not to monsters with riders. Monsters have more than 1 Wound on their profile and are covered by the rules for Monsters.

Panic Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

It is very difficult for troops to keep their nerve while people around them are falling to arrow fire. To simulate this, any unit taking substantial casualties may be called upon to take a Panic test. A Panic test is a Psychology test described in the section on Psychology along with other effects such as fear, terror, etc.

Fast Dice Rolling(Main Rulebook, p. 65)

You will have gathered by now that it is necessary to roll quite a few dice to resolve shooting - whole handfuls at once in fact! This doesn't take as long as you might imagine because all the dice are rolled together. The most practical way of going about this is to take as many dice as you have troops shooting and roll them all at once. So, if you're shooting with ten Archers roll ten dice. Then pick out any dice which score a hit and re-roll them to wound. So, from ten dice rolled, four might typically score hits. These are re-rolled and may score 2 wounds, for example.

Dice which score wounds are picked out and handed over to your opponent to take his saving throws with. This same system applies when working out close combat damage too.

Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 66)

Once Shooting has been resolved it is time to deal with the brutal cut and thrust of close combat, hand-to-hand fighting or melee, as it's sometimes called. Once engaged in close combat, units cannot move or shoot missile weapons, they must stand toe-to-toe with their enemy until one side is destroyed or forced to flee. Regardless of which player's turn it is, all models that are in contact with the enemy must fight. The Close Combat phase is therefore an exception to the normal turn sequence in that both sides take part in the fighting.

Like the Movement phase, the Close Combat phase follows a set order or sequence as outlined below.

  1. Fight Combats - Each unit involved in combat fights as explained in the rules that follow. Fight all the combats before working out results.

  2. Results - Work out which side has won each combat and by how much. The losing side will have lost by 1, 2 or more 'points' as explained later.

  3. Break Tests - Each unit that loses in combat must take a Break test. Any units failing their Break test are deemed 'broken' and a note is made or models are turned round to show this. Take all Break tests now.

  4. Panic Tests - If any friendly units have broken then units nearby must take a Panic test as described in the Psychology section. Take any required Panic tests now.

  5. Flee! - Units which have broken or failed their Panic test must flee away from their enemy. Move all newly fleeing troops now.

  6. Pursue - Units whose enemies have broken and fled that turn are allowed to pursue them and might possibly catch and destroy them.

  7. Redress Ranks - At the end of the Close Combat phase, formations are tidied up ready for the next phase.

Combats(Main Rulebook, p. 67)

Work out each combat one at a time - resolve the fighting for all of the troops involved in one combat before moving on to the next combat.

A combat is often a fight between a single unit of troops from each side, but it is possible that several units, monsters and Heroes may become involved. In the case of several combats being fought at once, the player whose turn it is determines the order combats are resolved.

So long as fighting units are interconnected, they are participating in the same combat. All the combat results for such a combat are worked out at the same time.

On this part of the battlefield there are three separate combats: one between two units and an Empire Hero on the left; a huge fight between two units of Empire troops, two units of Goblins and an Orc Chariot below; and a combat between two opposing units, an Orc Wyvern Rider and the crew of an Empire Great Cannon on the right.

Who Strikes First(Main Rulebook, p. 68)

In the desperate hack and slay of close combat the advantage goes to the best and fastest warriors, or those who have gained the extra impetus of charging into combat that turn. To represent this, combatants strike blows in a strict order.

Troops who have charged that turn automatically strike first. Otherwise, all blows are struck in strict order of Initiative (I). Combatants with a higher Initiative strike first followed by those with a lower Initiative. This is important because if a model is slain before it has a chance to strike, it obviously cannot fight back. Striking first is a big advantage, which is why it is better to charge your enemy rather than allow him to charge you.

If opposing troops have the same Initiative then the side which won the combat in the previous turn may strike first. If this doesn't apply, you should roll a D6 and the player who scores highest goes first.

For example: A bunch of Orc Boar Riders charges a group of EIf Spearmen. The Elves have an Initiative of 6, while the Orcs only have Initiative 2. The Orcs strike first because they charged. Next turn, the Elves will go first because of their higher Initiative.

Which Models Fight(Main Rulebook, p. 68)

A model can fight if its base is touching the base of an enemy model even if it only touches at the corner. Even models attacked in the side or rear may fight. If you wish, they may be temporarily turned in the ranks to indicate that they are doing so.

Goblins A, B or C, but not D can attack the Empire Archer.

If a model is touching more than one enemy, it can choose which to attack. If a model has more one 1 Attack, it can divide its Attacks as the player wishes so long as this is made clear before rolling to hit. For example, if faced with an enemy Hero and an ordinary enemy warrior you might decide to attack the warrior because he is easier to kill, or you could take the outside chance of slaying the Hero.

The attacking model may decide which model to attack: the Hero or the trooper.

In the case of cavalry mounts that have their own Attacks, such as Warhorses and Giant Wolves, the rider's Attack and the mount's Attack are worked out separately. This means that some cavalry models have two lots of Attacks: the rider's Attacks and the Attacks of his mount.

In any case, models in base contact with the enemy may not choose to avoid attacking their enemies.

Hitting the Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 69)

To see whether any hits are scored, roll a D6 for each model fighting. If you have more than 1 Attack with your troops then roll a D6 for each Attack. For example, 10 Elves have 1 Attack each so roll 10 dice, but 10 Minotaurs have 3 Attacks each so roll 30 dice.

The dice roll needed to score a hit on your enemy depends upon the relative Weapon Skills of the attacker and his foe. Compare the Weapon Skill of the attacker with the Weapon Skill of his opponent and consult the To Hit chart below to find the minimum D6 score needed to hit.

If you look at the chart below, you will see that if your warrior's Weapon Skill is greater than that of his enemy, you hit him on a dice roll of 3+. Otherwise your model will hit on a 4+, unless the enemy's Weapon Skill is more than double yours, in which case you require a 5+.

A\T12345678910
14455555555
23444555555
33344445555
43334444455
53333444444
63333344444
73333334444
83333333444
93333333344
103333333334

Sometimes modifiers apply to these rolls, but, unless it is specifically stated that hitting a model is impossible, an unmodified roll of 6 always hits.

Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 69)

When you are fighting against cavalry, all blows are struck against the rider using the rider's Weapon Skill and never against the mount. A mount fights using its own Weapon Skill if it has its own Attack.

Defended Obstacles(Main Rulebook, p. 69)

Troops lining up behind a wall, hedge or other obstacle can adopt a position to defend it. The front rank is moved right up against the obstacle to show this. Enemy wishing to attack the defenders can do so by charging them as normal. Attacking models don't have to physically cross the obstacle, indeed they are unable to whilst it is defended. Instead, the front rank is positioned on the opposite side to the defenders.

If attacking an enemy behind a defended obstacle, a 6 on a D6 is needed to hit them. This penalty applies to a unit attacking troops that have already taken up position behind the defended obstacle. The penalty does not apply to both sides in the combat even though the obstacle lies between them. The defending side has the advantage of already taking up a good position with its weapons sticking out or over gaps in the hedge or wall, whilst the other side must mount an assault in the face of a wall of sword points or spear tips. Flying models attacking enemy behind defended obstacles ignore the penalty.

The attacking side continues to suffer the '6 to hit' penalty until it wins a round of combat. Once the attackers have won the combat, they are assumed to have climbed over or onto the wall, and further combats are fought as normal. Chariots cannot charge models across defended obstacles, they would just be smashed to pieces.

Wound(Main Rulebook, p. 70)

Not all successful hits are going to harm your enemy - some may rebound from bones or bounce off tough hide, while others may cause only superficial damage which doesn't prevent the creature fighting. Once you have hit your foe, you must roll again to see whether your hits inflict wounds.

A\T12345678910
14566NNNNNN
234566NNNNN
3234566NNNN
42234566NNN
522234566NN
6222234566N
72222234566
82222223456
92222222345
102222222234

This procedure is the same as is described for shooting. Consult the Wound chart above, cross referencing the attacker's Strength with the defender's Toughness. Both values appear on the profiles of the creatures that are fighting. The chart indicates the minimum score required on a D6 to cause a wound. Note that where the table shows an 'N' this indicates that the target is too tough to be hurt. N stands for no effect.

Weapons Modifiers(Main Rulebook, p. 70)

Unlike hits from shooting, the Strength value of the attacker is used to determine wounds rather than the Strength of the weapon itself. However, some weapons confer a bonus on the attacker's Strength. For example, Bretonnian Knights that are charging with lances receive a +2 bonus to their Strength. These bonuses are discussed together with other special rules in the section on Weapons.

Saves(Main Rulebook, p. 70)

Combatants that are wounded have a chance to avoid suffering any damage if they are wearing armour, carrying shields or have a Ward save. This is exactly the same as described for shooting, and the same rules apply.

Regeneration and Killing Blow

The following is an excerpt from page 14 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding Combat Resolution and from wounds caused by Killing Blow.

Several people have asked if a successful Killing Blow can be regenerated, and also how many wounds does it count as for Combat Resolution? Well, taking the first question, a Killing Blow or any other attack (such as from a magic weapon) that kills instantly rather than removing individual Wounds, cannot be regenerated. It's just that - a Killing Blow! Secondly, the number of wounds it counts as inflicting is equal to the number of Wounds the dead model had before it was killed. For example, a model with 3 Wounds remaining that is felled by a Killing Blow would add +3 to the Combat Resolution score. The same applies to other 'instant death' attacks. This works slightly differently in challenges, but I'll be talking about those elsewhere.

Removing Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 70)

Close combat casualties are removed in the same way as shooting casualties. Although casualties fall amongst the rank that is fighting, it is more convenient to assume that models in the rear ranks will step forward to fill any gaps that appear. It is therefore more practical to remove casualties straight from a unit's rear ranks.

Models that fall casualty are not removed from the tabletop immediately, but are placed behind their unit. This is because when it comes to working out who has won the combat you will need to know how many casualties have been caused during it. Also, models which are removed before they have had a chance to attack may not do so, and models that are stepping forward from rear ranks to replace them can't attack that turn. This means that any casualties inflicted will reduce the number of enemy left to fight back. You need to know exactly how many models were killed that combat round who cannot attack back.

Excess Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 71)

It can sometimes happen that a unit causes more casualties than there are enemy models in base contact with it. When this happens, the excess casualties are removed as normal. This represents the attackers springing forward and following up their assault by striking over the fallen bodies of their foes. Such is the ferocity of their attack and the surprise caused by their success, the excess casualties are struck down where they stand and have no chance to attack back.

Results(Main Rulebook, p. 71)

For each separate combat you must determine which side has won. Do this once all the units engaged in the combat have fought. Obviously if one side is completely wiped out, the other side has won with no need for a Break test.

Begin by adding up all the wounds caused by each side in the combat. It doesn't matter which particular units suffered the wounds, just add them all up. Don't forget to add the wounds taken by big creatures that haven't been removed as casualties. Do NOT count wounds saved by Armour or Ward saves.

The side which has inflicted the most wounds wins the combat. The other side has lost. If both have inflicted the same number of wounds then the result is a draw.

However, a side can claim extra bonus points under certain circumstances - for example, if it has a Standard Bearer, if it is attacking the enemy in the flank, or if it is fighting from higher ground.

Each bonus point is added to the number of wounds inflicted. So, for example, if both sides cause 3 wounds then the result is a draw, but if one side has a standard it adds +1 to its score, beating the enemy by 4 points to 3. These bonus points can make all the difference between winning and losing the combat. The Combat Resolution Bonus chart summarises bonus points.

Once both sides have established their total points, including the number of casualties caused and bonus points, compare the values to discover which side has won the combat.

The higher that the winner's score is compared to the loser's score, the bigger and more decisive the victory. An 8 point against a 7 point victory is only a slight win, for example, because the difference in scores is only 1 point. An 8 point against a 2 point victory, however, is extremely decisive, as the difference in scores is a whopping 6 points. This difference in scores is important because it is used when working out whether a defeated enemy stands his ground or turns and flees.

Combat Results(Main Rulebook, p. 72)

Figure 1: In the first example six Empire Knights have charged into 15 Orcs arranged into three ranks of five.

Let us imagine that the Knights inflict 4 wounds, striking down four of the Orcs.

In reply the remaining Orc Warrior inflicts 1 wound and kills a single Knight.

To decide who wins the combat each side adds up the number of wounds it has caused. In this case the Knights score 4 and the Orcs 1. However, the Orcs have +2 from their extra ranks and they outnumber the Knights (Orcs Unit Strength is 11, Knights' Unit Strength is 10), for a final score of 4.

The combat is a draw.

Figure 2: In the second example we've assumed that the remaining Orc warriors have been joined by a unit of 32 Goblins fighting in a formation eight wide and four deep. The Goblins have stormed in from the flank, striking the side of the Knights' formation.

This time the Goblins strike first as they have charged, inflicting one casualty on the Knights. The Knights strike next as their Initiative is higher than that of the Orc Warriors, and they kill three of their enemies. In reply the Orcs inflict a further casualty on the Knights.

To work out which side has won count up the wounds caused by each side. The Orcs and Goblins have caused 2 against the Knights' score of 3. However, the Orcs & Goblins receive a rank bonus of +3 from the Goblin unit. Note that only one bonus is added from ranks, and it is always from the deepest unit participating. In addition the Goblins are making a flank attack and so earn an extra +1 and the Orcs & Goblins outnumber the Knights 40 to 6 (a further +1). The Orcs & Goblins' total is therefore 2 (wounds) + 3 (ranks) + 1 (flank) + 1 (outnumber) = 7 against the Knights' 3. The Orcs & Goblins win by a difference of 4.

Figure 3: In the third example, we assume that the Knights have passed their break test and five Empire Spearmen have charged the Goblins in the flank.

The Spearmen strike first as they have charged, inflicting two casualties on the Goblin unit. The Knights strike next causing one casualty on the Orcs, the Orcs kill one Knight, whilst the Goblins fail to kill any Knights but the models fighting on the flank manage to kill one spearman. The wounds inflicted by each side amount to 3 caused by the Empire and 2 caused by the Orcs & Goblins.

The Orc & Goblin force loses their rank bonus from the Goblins because they have been charged in the flank - nor are there sufficient Orc Warriors remaining to provide an extra rank. Also, the Orcs & Goblin's flank bonus is lost because both sides now have one unit fighting to a flank cancelling each other out. The Orcs & Goblins earn an extra +1 for the outnumber bonus.

The total scores are therefore 3 on each side and the result is a draw!

Combat Resolution Bonuses(Main Rulebook, p. 73)

This table is used to determine the combat resolution score. All of these are cumulative apart from where otherwise noted. Some magic items and exceptional circumstanced may affect the combat resolution score; this is clearly indicated in their description.

Bonus

Situation

+1

Extra Rank

+1

Outnumber Enemy

+1

Standard

+1

High Ground

+1

Flank Attack

+2

Rear Attack

+1

Overkill

Extra Rank

If your formation is a unit at least four models wide then you may claim a bonus of +1 for each rank behind the first at the start of a round of close combat, up to a maximum of +3. The bonus can be claimed for an incomplete last rear rank so long as it contains at least four models.

Fast cavalry and skirmishers never gain a bonus for extra ranks.

If you have several units fighting in a combat, count the bonus from the unit with the largest number of ranks. Do not add up the bonuses from all the units fighting.

This bonus is lost if the unit is charged in the flank or rear by an enemy with a Unit Strength of five or more. Not that this applies only as long as the unit which charged is in combat with the enemy - if they break and flee, or are reduced to a Unit Strength of less than five, the unit regains its rank bonus.

Outnumber Enemy

If the combined Unit Strength of your troops in combat is greater than the combined Unit Strength of your enemies you receive a +1 bonus.

Standard

If any of your units includes a Standard Bearer (either a unit Standard Bearer or a Battle Standard Bearer) in its front rank then you may add a +1 bonus.

Note that if several standards are involved in the combat (a unit Standard or a Battle Standard) then you still only add +1, not +1 for each standard. Rules for standards are described later.

High Ground

If you are fighting from a higher position than your enemy, for example, your troops are occupying the crest of a hill, then you may add a +1 bonus. This bonus is only granted if your fighting rank is on higher ground than your enemy.

Flank Attack

If you are fighting against an enemy unit's flank, you may add a +1 bonus so long as your unit has a Unit Strength of five or more.

Note that you only count +1 even if both flanks of the enemy are engaged.

If both sides have troops attacking in the flank then the side with the most number of flanking units gets the bonus. The bonus is only applied once, regardless of how many flanking units are involved in the combat.

Rear Attack

The same comments apply as for a flank attack to units attacking in the rear. This bonus and the bonus for a flank attack are cumulative, so if you are attacking in the side and rear you will receive a bonus of +3.

Overkill

If a character fighting in a challenge kills his opponent and scores more wounds than the enemy has then each excess wound scores a +1 overkill bonus towards the combat result up to a maximum of +5.

This bonus only applies in a challenge as described in the Characters section.

Outnumbering(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 14)

The following is an excerpt from page 14 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding Combat Resolution and Outnumbering.

Weight of numbers counts for a lot in Warhammer these days, and the +1 Outnumbering bonus is one of the most important ways to ensure that characters retain a healthy respect for large blocks of enemy soldiers. We've had a few questions regarding the Unit Strength of certain troop types, so on page 135 is an expanded version of the Unit Strength table. Unit Strength is not just a measure of numbers though, it also takes into account such factors as the size of the warriors, how fearsome they are, etc. Having a Goblin charge you in the flank won't scare you much, but having a massive Dragon pouncing on you will! As we produce more Warhammer Armies books, we'll detail the Unit Strength values of particularly weird and wacky troop types, but until then you should be able to fit them into one of the categories below.

Some units may contain a mix of different troop types, and all relevant Unit Strength values are added together. For example, 3 Rat Ogres with 2 Skaven Packmasters would be 9 + 2 = 11 (3 each for the Rat Ogres, 1 each for the Packmasters). Also remember that unlike the Rank Bonus, which is counted at the start of combat, Outnumbering is worked out after casualties have been removed.

Order of Combat Resolution(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 15)

The following is an excerpt from page 15 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding the Order of Combat Resolution.

One source of contention that has been brought to my attention is the order in which you should calculate combat results and make subsequent Break tests. This is because Generals and Battle Standards can break and flee, which could mean that nearby friendly troops would not be able to use their special rules. Personally, I always treat Combat Resolution as simultaneous, so that if a unit was within range of a General or Battle Standard after all combats were fought (but before troops break and flee) then they use the associated benefits. By the same token, rallying is worked out the same way, so you can't test to rally your General first and then allow nearby units to use his Leadership to rally in the same turn.

The same applies to breaking and pursuits, and my advice would be to make any fleeing and pursuit movements in the order that makes it the most physically convenient. The diagrams below show what I mean by this.

Sometimes a pursuing unit will crash into an enemy unit fleeing from another combat. In this case, the enemy unit isn't wiped out as it hasn't been caught by the pursuing foe. In this situation, all normal rules apply. Firstly, the pursuing unit counts as charging. Secondly, a unit that is already fleeing when charged will automatically flee again. So if a pursuing unit moves into a fleeing unit, the unit will make another flee move and will either get away or be wiped out if it can't outdistance its foe.

1. Two units break as a result of combat and are pursued by their enemies.
2. Wrong! If the unit of Spearmen pursue first, this would bring them into contact with the Orc unit.
3. Right! Instead, move the Orc unit first so that it moves out of the way, and then the Spearmen unit.

Challenges(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 14)

The following is an excerpt from page 14 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding Combat Resolution and Challenges.

So, how do you work out the Combat Resolution for challenges when you've got Overkill, multiple wound magic weapons and warriors with Killing Blow? Actually, it's not as complicated as it seems, as long as you follow the To Wound procedure methodically. First of all, let's remind ourselves that Combat Resolution is equal to the total number of wounds inflicted on the opposing character, capped at five more than they had before the attacks were made. For example, if a character had only a single Wound remaining and failed to save against 8 wounds (perhaps he's fighting a Bloodthirster...), this stops at the maximum of +6 for Combat Resolution.

The same applies to multiple wound attacks. Make all the rolls to wound, make armour saves and Ward saves, and then work out how many wounds have been inflicted. Again the limit is the number of Wounds the character had and up to five more. For instance, a character with 3 Wounds is wounded four times by a weapon that does D3 wounds. He makes his armour saves and still suffers 2 wounds. This becomes 2D3 wounds because of the special attack. Let's say the attacker rolls a total of 5 wounds. This knocks off the character's remaining Wounds and has two left for Overkill, giving +5 Combat Resolution.

Killing Blows and other 'instant death' attacks are worked out as follows. If a character falls to a Killing Blow, this scores the number of wounds they had remaining, just as with ordinary troops. In addition, the attacker scores an Overkill bonus equal to the number of other wounding hits, regardless of whether they were Killing Blows. Saved wounds are disregarded. For example, a character with Killing Blow in a challenge hits his opponent three times. The enemy has 2 Wounds left. When rolling to wound the attacker scores one ordinary wound and two Killing Blows. His enemy has no Ward save and so is dead. This therefore counts as 2 Wounds (enemy's remaining Wounds), with +1 for the wounding hit caused by the second Killing Blow. In addition, his opponent must save the third inflicted wound or this too will be added to the Overkill total.

Losers Take a Break Test(Main Rulebook, p. 74)

The side that loses a combat must take a test to determine whether it stands and fights or turns tail and runs away. This is called a Break test. You need to take a separate Break test for every unit involved in the combat.

Depending on which units pass and which fail their test, some may break and flee whilst others stand their ground. Troops which are better led, braver, and more professional are more likely to stand firm, whilst wild, temperamental troops are far more likely to run for it.

Take the test as follows. Firstly, nominate which unit you are testing for. Roll 2D6 and add the scores together. Add the difference between the winner's and loser's combat score. If the total is greater than the unit's Leadership (Ld) value then the unit is broken. Broken units will turn tail and flee once all combat on the entire battlefield has been worked out. Until all combat has been worked out, simply turn a few of the rear rank models round to remind you that the unit is broken.

For example: A unit of EIf Archers is fighting a unit of Goblin Spearmen. The Goblins inflict 3 wounds on the Elves, and the Elves inflict 4 wounds on the Goblins. However, the Goblin player has four complete ranks in his formation, each extra rank adding +1 to his score, and his troops outnumber the Elves, adding another +1. This gives him 3 + 4 = 7 points against the Elves' score of 4.

The Elves have therefore lost the combat, even though they have caused more casualties - the vast numbers of Goblins pressing from the back have overwhelmed them. The Elves must therefore take a Break test adding +3 to their dice score, because the difference between the scores is 3. Elves have a good Leadership value (8) but with the extra + 3 modifier on the dice, the player will have to roll 5 or less to stand and fight. The player rolls 2D6 and scores 7. The +3 modifier brings his total to 10 which is greater than the unit's Leadership, so the Elves are broken.

Panic Tests for Breaks(Main Rulebook, p. 74)

Once all defeated units have taken a Break test, each remaining unit that is within 6" of friendly units which have broken or been wiped out is called upon to take a Panic test, as described in the Psychology section. This represents the spread of panic amongst the army as friendly units collapse and turn tail and run. Panic is a special psychological effect, and the full rules for Panic are covered in the following section of the rulebook. However, it is worth bearing in mind at this stage that Panic tests must be taken once all Break tests are complete, but before fleeing troops are moved.

Fleeing Troops(Main Rulebook, p. 74)

Once you have completed all of the Break tests resulting from combat that turn and have taken all necessary Panic tests, it is time for broken and panicked troops to flee. Fleeing troops turn directly away from their enemy and run as fast as they can. If they were engaged by several opponents, they flee away from the enemy unit with the highest Unit Strength. They abandon their formation and run from their enemy in a complete rout, blindly scrambling over the ground in their efforts to avoid destruction.

Even though the fleeing unit moves in a disorganised mob, for the purposes of moving the fleeing troops, it is convenient to keep them in formation.

Move Fleeing Troops(Main Rulebook, p. 74)

It is difficult to say precisely how far fleeing troops will run because they are no longer fighting as a body but milling around in a frightened mob. To represent this, dice are rolled to establish how far the fleeing unit moves. If the unit normally moves 6" or less roll 2D6. If the unit moves more than 6" roll 3D6. The result is the distance covered by the fleeing troops. Due to their disrupted formation, they ignore any penalty for obstacles and terrain (apart from impassable terrain).

Move the fleeing unit directly away from its enemy, so that the closest part of the unit is 2D6" or 3D6" away and facing in the opposite direction. Fleeing troops will move round friends where possible, but will move straight through friends if no other venue of escape remains. Individual fleeing models that would otherwise end up in the middle of a friendly unit are instead placed to the side or beyond them if this is the only option.

A fleeing unit is destroyed if caught by pursuers, as described under Pursuit.

Subsequent Actions of Fleeing Troops(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

If they are not destroyed then fleeing units continue to move 2D6" or 3D6" during their subsequent Movement phases. This is their Flee roll. They must attempt to leave the battlefield as quickly as possible, which often means that they will move towards the nearest table edge. This is a 'compulsory move' so fleeing troops are moved before other troops once charges have been declared (see the Movement section). Due to their disorganised formation they ignore penalties for obstacles and terrain (except for impassable terrain).

A unit which is fleeing cannot fight, shoot or use magic - it can only flee. Where there is room, it will move round obstacles that block its path, including units of troops. Fleeing troops will not move within 4" of enemy unless they have no other choice - if they are surrounded, for example.

If any models from a fleeing unit leave the table edge then the entire unit is considered to have left the battlefield and is removed from play. Troops have scattered beyond recovery or have found places to hide themselves until the battle is over.

If enemy troops successfully charge a unit that is already fleeing then the unit automatically flees from the charge. The unit makes its 2D6" or 3D6" Flee roll just like any other unit fleeing from a charge. The charging enemy destroys the fleeing troops if it catches them. If they do not catch the fleeing troops then the charge has failed (see Movement for the rules relating to charges and charge reactions).

Rallying(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

A fleeing unit must attempt to stop fleeing by taking a Rally test in its Movement phase. This represents the efforts of leaders and brave individuals to call a halt to the rout, bring the troops to their senses and restore order. This is called rallying.

Rally Test(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

Rally tests are taken in the Movement phase after charges have been declared but before further movement has occurred (see the sequence at the start of the Movement section).

To take a Rally test roll 2D6. If the score is equal to or less than the unit's Leadership (Ld) then the unit stops fleeing and has rallied. The unit must spend the remainder of the turn reforming and may not shoot or fight, though the player may rearrange its formation and turn it to face in whichever direction he chooses. Any rallying characters may cast spells as normal. If a fleeing unit has suffered a great many casualties it will be unable to rally - its warriors are too demoralised and are interested only in escape. A unit must have at least 25% of its original number of models surviving to be able to rally. If a fleeing unit has less than 25% of its original number left, the unit cannot rally and will continue to flee until it leaves the table or ls destroyed. Other models, such as characters, may never join a fleeing unit. A character cannot leave a unit which is fleeing, so cannot be rallied if a unit he has joined flees with less than 25% of its original number left.

Pursuit(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

If a unit wins a combat and all the enemies it is fighting flee, then the victorious unit must normally pursue. The troops surge forward, hacking at their retreating foes as their backs are turned, cutting them down as they run and scattering them before their uncontrolled fury. Note that a unit will only pursue if all the enemies it is fighting flee - if one enemy unit breaks and flees whilst another fights on then the victorious troops cannot pursue. Like fleeing, pursuit is a hectic and uncontrolled affair, so dice are rolled to determine how far the pursuing unit moves.

Pursuit Move(Main Rulebook, p. 75)

Once fleeing troops have been moved, victorious units will pursue. To find out how far they pursue, starting with the unit with the highest Unit Strength, roll 2D6 or 3D6 in exactly the same way as for fleeing troops. This is their Pursuit roll. If a victorious unit scores equal to or greater than the Flee roll scored by the unit it is pursuing then the fleeing unit is completely destroyed - all the troops are cut down as they run or they are scattered beyond hope of regrouping. Pursuers are moved the full distance indicated straight towards the fleeing troops, and through their position if their pursuit move is especially long. If the pursuers do not roll a sufficiently high score to catch the fleeing unit then no further casualties are caused and the pursuers are simply moved the distance indicated towards their fleeing enemies. Pursuers always move their full pursuit distance unless their pursuit takes them into contact with fresh enemy. During a pursuit move, pursuers ignore any penalties for obstacles and terrain (apart from impassable terrain) - their victory has given them the extra impetus to chase their fleeing enemies.

Note that units do not continue to pursue in subsequent turns; pursuit is a single bonus move which is made when a beaten enemy flees. One unit can only pursue one fleeing enemy unit, even if it broke several units in close combat.

Pursuit into Fresh Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

Assuming that pursuers do not encounter any fresh enemy, they move the distance indicated by their dice roll and thereafter are ready to fight normally. So, in their following turn they may charge, march or move normally exactly like any other unit, and no penalty is imposed because of their pursuit move.

It sometimes happens that pursuers move so far that they hit a fresh enemy unit. The pursuers are carried forward against the enemy unit as they chase their fleeing enemy. This is treated as if it were a new charge. However, this will only happen if your direct pursuit move would take you into contact with the enemy. The pursuing unit has no choice in the matter, they must charge against the fresh enemy. The unexpectedly attacked unit can only respond to the charge by holding; any attempt to flee, stand & shoot, or do anything else amidst the confusion of running bodies is deemed impossible. They must make any necessary Psychology tests immediately.

If the new enemy causes fear or terror (see the Psychology section), the pursuers do not have to make a test - they are gripped by the excitement of the chase and are ready to fight any enemy! Note that psychology will apply as normal in the subsequent turns - only the tests required to charge opponents who cause fear or terror are ignored.

Since pursuit into fresh enemy is treated as a new charge, all rules governing charges apply. Specifically, the pursuers must endeavour to bring as many charging models into combat as possible. This means that it will often be necessary to wheel slightly in order to face the enemy.

The resulting combat is worked out in the following turn. The pursuers are charging and so get all the usual benefits and bonuses as if they had charged that turn, even though their charge occurred during the close combat phase of the previous turn. A fleeing unit is destroyed even if its pursuers subsequently charge a new enemy, as long as the pursuing unit's Pursuit roll scores equal to or greater than the fleeing unit's Flee roll.

Pursuit into Enemy Chargers

The following is an excerpt from page 16 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding the how to handle pursuing/overrunning into enemies who have also charged.

It is possible that two units can end up in contact with each other and both count as charging. For example, two units may pursue into each other, or a pursuing unit might well run into the enemy and then get charged in the next turn. Normally a charging unit always strikes first, but in this situation what is the order of attacks? Well, after much umming and aahing, we've come up with the following solution, which is actually quite difficult to explain, but straightforward on the tabletop.

When a combat involves charging units from both sides, the chargers strike in the order in which they charged. However, models may not strike against an enemy that has charged them until that charging unit's attacks are resolved. All units striking first are allowed all the normal charge bonuses for lances, etc. A unit that has been charged and is not charging itself will always strike after all charging units - only the order of the chargers' attacks are relevant.

This sounds horribly complex but isn't really, and is most easily demonstrated by a nice example, so have a look at the diagram above. Note that Empire detachments have their own special rules so that when counter-charging they will always strike first. However, if not specifically counter-charging then the strike order below is used.

Order of Attacks

  • Unit b vs a will receive a charge bonus.

  • Unit c vs b will receive a charge bonus.

  • Unit b vs c does not receive a charge bonus.

  • Unit a vs b does not receive a charge bonus.

Restraining Pursuit(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

A player may decide that he would prefer his unit did not pursue a fleeing enemy. Normally a unit must pursue if it is able to do so, but, before rolling to see how far the enemy flees, the player may attempt to halt the pursuit by making a rest against the unit's Leadership (Ld). This represents the unit's leader calling to his troops to hold, while their natural inclination is to run after the enemy and cut them down. Roll 2D6. If the score is equal to or less than the unit's Leadership value then the test is passed and the unit may remain stationary instead of pursuing.

A unit does not have to pursue if it is defending a wall, hedgerow or a comparable obstacle or fortification. As pursuit would force the unit to abandon its secure position there is obviously an incentive to stay put! In such a case, the player can choose whether to pursue or not without the need of a dice roll.

Pursuit Off the Table(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

A unit which pursues its fleeing enemy off the table returns to the same point from which it left the table, in the same formation in its following Movement phase, facing directly towards the battlefield. The unit may not charge, as it has missed its opportunity to declare charges, but may move its full Move that turn, and it may shoot and otherwise participate in the game as normal. In any case, the unit counts as having moved and so will suffer a -1 penalty to any shooting.

Redress the Ranks(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

Once fleeing troops and pursuers have been moved, it is time to tidy up the formations of fighting units in preparation for the next phase. This will not always prove necessary, as much depends upon the casualties inflicted and the combat results.

Remember, a unit must always contain the same number of models in each rank as the first, except for its rear rank which may contain fewer. The process of redressing the ranks is intended to ensure that this remains true after combat, and also affords victors the chance to adjust their formation by expanding their frontage or lapping round as described elsewhere.

Fleeing Units(Main Rulebook, p. 76)

Units which have fled, abandon their formation and so have no opportunity to redress their ranks at this time. The unit forms a rough block or mass of troops, and models are arranged in a higgledy-piggledy manner to show their disorganised status. Fleeing units do not take further Psychology test - they must test to Rally in their Movement phase.

Units Taking Casualties(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

Casualties are usually removed from the back of a unit's formation, in which case the unit is left exactly as it is. Remember, a unit engaged in combat cannot move in its Movement phase and, so has no opportunity to change its formation.

If a unit is fighting in a single rank, forming a line of troops, then casualties are removed from either end. If this results in an enemy who is attacking the side of the formation becoming separated from the combat, then compensate for this by move one or both units so that they remain in contact where possible.

If a character model is fighting as part of a unit's formation, perhaps leading the unit into battle, then his death will leave a gap in your front rank. In this case, move a model forward from the rear rank to fill the gap, or, if the unit is fighting in a single rank, move a model from one edge. See the section on Characters for more detail.

Expand Frontage(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

If a unit wins the combat, models can be moved from rear ranks and placed in the front rank to increase the width of the formation so that more models can fight. The formation's width can be increased by up to two models on either or both flanks.

In this situation the Empire Spearmen win the combat and expand their formation by moving eight models to increase the width of the unit by two on each flank. Remember — units must maintain equal-sized ranks apart from the rearmost rank.

Lapping Round(Main Rulebook, p. 77)

If a unit wins the combat and its formation already extends to the enemy's flanks then models may be moved from the rear ranks round the sides of the enemy unit. These extra models are described as lapping round. You may move up to two models around each flank, assuming that there is room and that the flank is not blocked by another unit, buildings, or terrain. Once models have covered the enemy's flanks, further models may be lapped around the rear should they win a further turn. In this way, it is possible to extend your line and surround an enemy unit completely.

If a unit which is lapping around is successfully charged by fresh enemies that can reach them, the lapping models will immediately return to the rear rank of their formation. The chargers will be moved into contact with the reformed unit if their charge reach is sufficient. If they can no longer reach the charged unit because models in it have been moved to the rear ranks, the charge counts as having failed.

Top: Lapping models from the rear rank move to the enemy's flank. Bottom: Lapping models from the rear rank move to the enemy's rear.

Combat Bonuses(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

Models that are lapping round the flank or rear are ignored for purposes of establishing a unit's rank bonus in close combat. Lapping round models in this way might therefore reduce your rank bonus by reducing the number of ranks fighting.

However, units which are lapping round do receive the extra bonuses for flank and rear attacks so long as the entire unit has a Unit Strength of 5 or more. This means that, in most cases, it is well worth lapping round whenever you can. Note that models lapping around an enemy unit's flanks or rear do not negate the enemy unit's rank bonus - only a new charge into the flank or rear of a unit negates its rank bonus.

Defeat in Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

If a unit is defeated in close combat then any models already lapping round are immediately returned to the rear rank of their formation. They have been driven off by the enemy and forced to regroup behind the unit's main body.

Which Models Can Fight(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

All models touching base-to-base are allowed to fight in close combat, so troops along the sides of 'flanked' units can fight back against troops that are Lapping round. Players might wish to physically turn the models round to face their enemies in order to show this, although it is not strictly necessary to do so.

Overrun Rule(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

Sometimes a powerful unit is capable of smashing through an enemy in a single round of close combat. In such cases, the thundering charge of the victorious unit will sweep it forward as it cuts down its pitiful enemies.

In Warhammer this is represented by the Overrun rule. This rule stops individual and small units from stopping a unit of charging Knights in its tracks, for example.

Overrun(Main Rulebook, p. 78)

If all of a unit's opponents are slain in the first round of close combat then it is allowed to make an Overrun move as if it had broken its enemies. This will be 2D6" or 3D6" depending on the Movement value of the unit (like with fleeing and pursuit). The unit moves forwards in a direct line (ie, towards and through the position where the destroyed enemy unit was). Note that the victorious unit does not have to make the Overrun move - the player may elect to keep his troops stationary if he wishes.

Sometimes the Overrun move allows the unit to hit a fresh enemy unit. This is treated as if it were a new charge, and all the rules governing charges apply. In this case, the Overrunning unit has no choice in the matter, it must charge against the fresh enemy. The unexpectedly attacked unit can only respond to the charge by holding; any attempt to flee or stand & shoot is impossible. When moving an overrunning unit into contact with the enemy, the player must endeavour to bring as many models from the charging unit into combat as possible. This can usually be achieved by moving them straight forward, but it will sometimes be necessary to wheel the unit slightly to face the enemy.

If the new enemy or the overrunning unit causes fear or terror, neither unit has to make a Psychology test – overrunners are too exultant and the charged unit is too surprised! Note that psychology will apply as normal in subsequent turns - only tests required to charge opponents who cause fear or terror are ignored.

The resulting combat is worked out in the following turn. The overrunning troops are charging and so get all the usual benefits and bonuses, just as if they had charged that turn, even though their charge actually occurred during the Close Combat phase of the previous turn.

Assuming that overrunning troops do not encounter any fresh enemy, they move the distance indicated by their dice roll and thereafter are ready to fight normally. So, in their following turn they may charge, march or move normally exactly like any other unit, and no penalty is imposed because of pursuing.

Overrun Direction

The following is an excerpt from page 16 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding Combat Resolution, specifically the section titled, "OVERRUN".

There seems to be a bit of confusion regarding when a unit which is making an overrun move can wheel to charge an enemy. Put simply, when a unit overruns it will move directly forward. If this forward movement will take it into the enemy then, and only then, is the unit allowed to wheel to try and bring as many models as possible into contact. See the diagrams below for an example of this.

The unit of Knights will not be able to make an overrun into the enemy unit...
...so the unit of Knights may not wheel during its overrun move.
The unit of Knights can make an overrun move into the enemy unit...
...so the unit of Knights may wheel to bring as many models as possible into contact with the unit of Orcs.

Psychology(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

It is an unfortunate fact that in the heat of battle troops often don't respond as you, their commander, might want them to. Faced with terrifying supernatural foes, their courage might fail, or they could simply be too dim to understand the orders they have been given. The hatred engendered by age-long feuds can overwhelm military discipline and leave troops overcome with bloodlust at the sight of their ancestral foes.

As the army commander, it is your duty to know about these things and take them into account in your plans. lf you do not then you may find that you are defeated before you even begin. The Psychology rules represent these factors in the game and call upon the player to make occasional tests to determine whether his troops are affected by adverse psychology, such as fear or terror. Most Psychology tests are made in the same way, so we'll describe the procedure first before we look at the Individual psychological factors.

Taking Psychology Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

When taking Psychology tests, roll 2D6 and compare the result to the Leadership value of the unit taking the test. If the result is less than or equal to the unit's Leadership score, the test is passed and all is well. lf the result is greater than the unit's Leadership score then the test has been failed.

Players will immediately realise that a Psychology test is taken in the same way as a Break test in close combat and uses the same characteristic, namely the Leadership value. However, a Break test is not a Psychology test. The two are quite separate. This is an important point because some bonuses will apply specifically to Break tests and others will apply specifically to Psychology tests.

Using Rider's Leadership(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

In the case of models such as cavalry, chariots and heroic individuals riding monsters, it is the rider's Leadership that is used and not that of the mount or monster. If a chariot has several crew, use the Ld of the crew member with the highest Ld value.

Using Leaders' Leadership(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

If a unit of troops is led by a character then the entire unit may choose to test against his Leadership value. Characters often have better Leadership values than ordinary troops, so a regiment led by a superior character will be less prone to the effects of psychology. See the Characters section for rules concerning characters and units of troops.

The Order of Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 79)

Many Psychology tests are taken at the start of the player's turn. For example, Panic tests caused by friends fleeing nearby and Stupidity tests are both taken at the start of the turn. When a player is called upon to take different tests at the start of the turn then do them in the same order as they are listed here. So, if a unit is obliged to take a Panic and a Stupidity test then take the Panic test first, and only if this is passed will it be necessary to take the Stupidity test.

  1. Panic

  2. Fear

  3. Terror

  4. Stupidity

  5. Frenzy

Psychology Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 80)

Warhammer uses the following psychology rules:

  1. Panic

  2. Fear

  3. Terror

  4. Stupidity

  5. Frenzy

  6. Hatred

  7. Stubborn

Panic(Main Rulebook, p. 80)

This is the most common and most important psychological effect. Battles are often won or lost because an army panics and flees, even though it may not have been beaten in combat. Troops who see their friends run can easily lose their nerve and flee themselves, causing other troops to lose heart until the whole army is fleeing in blind panic.

A unit must make a Panic test in the following circumstances:

  1. Fleeing friendly unit is within 4" at the start of the turn.

  2. Friends within 6" break from close combat or are destroyed.

  3. The unit is charged in the side or rear whilst engaged in combat.

  4. Fleeing friends are destroyed by chargers who are within 4".

  5. The unit suffers 25% casualties from shooting or magic.

  6. A unit is wiped out by shooting or magic within 4".

Note that most Panic tests are taken at the end of each phase, and you only need to take one Panic rest per unit in each Shooting, Close Combat or Magic phase, etc, even if there are multiple reasons to take Panic tests.

Fleeing friendly unit within 4" at the start of the turn

A unit must test at the start of its turn if there is one or more units of fleeing friends within 4". However, the unit does not have to test if its Unit Strength is equal to or higher than the combined Unit Strengths of all fleeing friendly units within 4". For example, a unit of 20 Spearmen does not have to test if a unit of five cavalry is fleeing past them. However, if the cavalry unit was 12 strong, the Spearmen would have to rest for panic as the Unit Strength of 12 cavalry is 24 (2x2=24).

Friends break from close combat within 6"

Test at the end of the Close Combat phase if one or more friendly units break within 6" as a result of being defeated in close combat. Measure from the closest point of the broken unit. In order to avoid confusion between units which are fleeing from combat and units which are fleeing as a result of panic, work our all combat results first and then take all resultant Panic tests. A unit only needs to take one Panic test on account of breaking friends in each Close Combat phase, regardless of how many units of friends break within 6". The same test must also be taken if a friendly unit within 6" is destroyed in close combat, unless it is a single model with less than 5 Wounds on its original profile, in which case no test is necessary. Although a unit which is destroyed cannot be broken as it no longer exists, its destruction is still extremely unnerving for friends nearby!

Charged in the side or rear while engaged in combat

A unit must rest if it is fighting in close combat at the beginning of the turn, and is charged in the side or rear by an enemy unit with a Unit Strength of 5 or more. Make the test as soon as the charge is declared and determined to be within reach. No test is required if the charging unit is unable to reach its target unit.

Fleeing friends destroyed by chargers within 4"

If a friendly unit flees from a charge and is caught and destroyed then all friendly units within 4" of the final position of the fleeing troops must take a Panic test once all charges are complete but before close combat starts.

No test is needed if the unit outnumbers it's destroyed friends, in the same way as described earlier in this section.

25% Casualties from shooting or magic

A unit must take a Panic test if it suffers 25% of its current number as casualties in the enemy's Shooting phase or Magic phase. Only a single test per Shooting or Magic phase is required, and all the tests are taken at the end of the current phase. Example: A unit of 12 models must test if it suffers three or more casualties from shooting.

War machines do not have to test if they lose one or more of their crew, and neither do ridden monsters if they lose their rider, or vice versa.

This test must also be taken by a charging unit if its enemies stand & shoot and inflict 25% casualties. This may result in the charging unit panicking before it contacts its target, in which case it has been forced to flee from the hail of arrows unleashed by the defenders.

This test must also be taken if the unit suffers 25% casualties from randomly moving enemies, magical effects or unusual terrain types as might be included as 'special rules' by the players. This is intended as a 'catch-all' to cover units that suffer high casualties from something other than normal close combat, shooting or magic. Some good examples include casualties inflicted by a crashing Gyrocopter, whirling Goblin Fanatics, or Squig Hoppers, which cause casualties as they move. These Panic tests are taken at the end of the phase.

Unit wiped out by shooting or magic within 4"

If a unit is wiped out by missile fire or magic, any friendly units within 4" of it must take a Panic test at the end of the phase, unless the destroyed unit is a single model with less than 5 Wounds on its original profile.

Panicking Units(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

A unit that fails a Panic test will flee in the same way as described for units which break in close combat or which flee from a charge. Fleeing troops abandon their formation and are moved in a rough mass 2D6" or 3D6" away from the enemy and/or source of panic, but the player is allowed to decide exactly where to flee within these guidelines. See the Close Combat section for rules governing fleeing troops.

Panicking at the Start of the Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

Note that if a unit panics at the start of its turn because of fleeing friends within 4", terror, etc, then it may not attempt to rally that turn. The unit must flee during the compulsory movement part of its Movement phase.

Panicking in Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

If a unit is engaged in close combat and panics then the normal Flee and Pursuit rules apply. The fleeing unit can therefore be pursued if its enemy won the preceding combat, and consequently the fleeing unit may be destroyed in the same way as a unit that breaks following defeat in combat. If the enemy did not win the previous combat (or the two have not yet fought for some reason) the enemy cannot pursue.

Note that a unit which panics and flees from combat does not cause other units to panic as a result (ie, because friends break from close combat within 6"). A test is only required for friends that are defeated in combat and then broken as a result.

Voluntary Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

It is conceivable that a situation occurs where both players agree a Panic test is in order, even though the rules don't strictly require it. This is most likely to happen if fighting a scenario you have invented, perhaps where ambushers spring a trap, where boulders are thrown from cliffs, or some such circumstance which the players have contrived.

If both players agree a Panic test can be taken to represent the unsettling situation the unit is in.

Fear(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

Fear is a natural reaction to huge or especially ugly and unnerving monsters. Some creatures inspire fear as is indicated in their relevant Army book and these include large and disturbing monsters such as Troll; as well as supernatural horrors such as Skeletons.

A unit must take a Fear test if it is faced by one of the following situations:

  1. If Charged by a Fear-causing Enemy

  2. If a Unit Wishes to Charge a Feared Enemy

If Charged by a Fear-causing Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

If a unit is charged by an enemy that it fears then it must take a test to see if can overcome that fear and carry on fighting. Test when the charge is declared and the unit is determined to be within its charge range.

If the test is passed, the unit can fight on as normal. If the unit fails its test and its Unit Strength happens to be lower than the charging enemy, it will flee.

If the unit fails its test but its Unit Strength is equal to or higher than the charging enemy's, it will fight on as normal but must roll 6s to score hits in the first turn of close combat.

If a Unit Wishes to Charge a Feared Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

If a unit wishes to charge an enemy that causes fear then it must take a test to overcome its fear first. If the unit is unfortunate and the test is failed, it may not charge or shoot and must remain stationary in their Movement phase.

Defeated by Fear-causing Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

A unit defeated in close combat is automatically broken without a Break test if it is fighting an enemy that it fears and its Unit Strength is lower than the victorious enemy. If the fear-causing enemy does not have a higher Unit Strength then a Break test is taken as normal. See the Close Combat section for details of combat results, Break tests and fleeing troops. Note that this rule applies whether the unit has passed any Fear tests or not.

Terror(Main Rulebook, p. 81)

Some monsters are so huge and threatening that they are considered to be even more frightening than those described by the Fear rules. Such creatures cause terror.

Troops who are confronted by monsters or situations that cause terror must test to see whether they overcome their terror. If they fail, they are completely terrified and are reduced to gibbering wrecks. Troops only ever test for terror once in a battle. Once they've overcome their terror they are not affected again.

If a creature causes terror then it automatically causes fear as well, and all the rules described for fear apply. However, you never have to take a Terror and a Fear test from the same enemy or situation - just take a Terror test: if you pass the Terror test then you automatically pass the Fear test, too. As any unit of Troops only ever takes one Terror rest in a battle, any subsequent encounters with terrifying monsters or situations will simply count as fear.

  • A unit must make a Terror test if charged by or wishing to charge an enemy that causes terror.

  • A unit must make a Terror test at the start of its turn if there is an enemy which causes terror within 6".

Flee!(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

A unit which fails its Terror test will flee away from the source of its terror as if it had failed its Break test in close combat or had decided to flee from a charge.

A unit being charged will flee immediately like any unit which flees from a charge.

A unit attempting to charge or failing a test at the start of its turn will flee in the compulsory movement part of its Movement phase.

A unit which flees in terror because of an enemy within 6" at the start of its turn may not attempt to rally that turn. It will flee in the compulsory part of its Movement phase, in the same way as a unit which panics because of fleeing friends within 4" (see Panic).

Remember that only a single test is ever made for terror by any unit during the whole game, whether it is made because of a charge or because the unit finds itself within 6" of a terrifying monster.

Fear and Terror Liabilities(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

Obviously a large monster is less likely to suffer from fear or terror itself. There is no way a huge Dragon is going to be scared of a Troll, for example. These special liabilities also apply to any rider of a large monster (or a steed) too, so a Dragon rider wouldn't be afraid of a creature that would frighten him were he on foot. They also apply to units that are accompanied by fear or terror causing creatures: a Skink unit with a Kroxigor would be immune to fear, for example.

The following rules apply:

A creature that causes fear is not affected by enemies that cause fear. Faced with an enemy that causes terror, a fear-causing monster only suffers fear, not terror. For example, a Troll causes fear and a Dragon causes terror. The Dragon is not at all worried by the Troll, but the Troll fears the Dragon.

A creature that causes terror is not affected by fear or terror at all. For example, a Dragon rider is completely unworried by fear or terror because his mount causes terror.

lt sometimes happens that an enemy unit of ordinary Troops is led by a mighty Hero or a monster which causes fear or terror. In this situation, test for fear/terror if a charge will result in the charged unit fighting the Hero or monster in question.

In the case of terror a unit must also test if it is within 6" of the creature at the start of its turn, but not necessarily because it is within 6" of a unit that the terrifying creature is in. If the unit is charging a unit of enemy troops in the side or rear, so that the charging unit won't have to fight a terror-causing monster, then the unit does not have to test for terror. This is common sense - if you don't have to confront the beast then no rest is required.

Stupidity(Main Rulebook, p. 82)

Many large and powerful creatures are unfortunately rather stupid. Even some otherwise quite intelligent creatures act stupidly now and again because they are readily confused or distracted, or perhaps because they are drugged or have been knocked insensible. The Stupidity rules represent the sort of slow wittedness or dumb behaviour which some especially stolid or stubborn beasts are prone to. Creatures that, are stupid are indicated in the Army books and include such monstrous creatures as Trolls.

Stupid creatures must make a test at the start of their turn to see whether they overcome their stupidity. Make a test for each unit of stupid troops. If they pass the test by rolling their Leadership value or less on 2D6 then all is well and good - the creatures behave reasonably intelligently and can move and fight as normal. Nothing untoward has occurred beyond a bit of drooling and the odd spontaneous cackle.

If the test is failed then all is not well. The following rules apply until the creatures' following turn when they must test once more to see whether they are overcome by stupidity. In addition, a Wizard subject to being stupid cannot cast spells if he fails the test.

  1. If already in close combat, half of the stupid creatures in base contact with the enemy suddenly stop fighting. They stare around blankly and wonder where they are. If the unit has an odd number of models or if a stupid creature is fighting on its own then roll a D6. If the result is 4 or more, the odd model fights; if not, it stands around vacantly. Note that only stupid creatures are affected. If a unit contains stupid creatures and other creatures (a unit of Trolls led by a Goblin Chieftain, for example) then the other creatures are not affected. The controlling player decides which individual creatures in combat cannot fight.

  2. If not in close combat, the unit momentarily forgets what it is doing. Move the unit directly forwards at half normal speed (for example, Trolls with Movement 6 would move 3" forward). Any enemy troops encountered are automatically charged. If there are friends in the way, both units blunder into each other and their ranks become confused, in which case both units are pinned in place for the rest of the turn and neither may move further. This counts as compulsory movement and so occurs before other movement, but after charges have been declared (see the Movement section). Creatures within the unit that do not suffer from being stupid must also move as described - they are carried along by the movement of the rest of the unit and risk being trampled if they attempt to do otherwise.

Further Psychology(Main Rulebook, p. 83)

Creatures affected by stupidity are quite unaware of anything happening around them, such is their stare of confusion. Until they are no longer stupid they ignore all further Psychology tests. This means that stupid creatures cannot be affected by panic, fear, etc, but they can still be broken in close combat by failing a Break test exactly as normal. Stupid troops that flee are not affected by stupidity until they have rallied, after which they must take Stupidity tests at the start of each of their subsequent turns.

Stupidity and Riders(Main Rulebook, p. 83)

It sometimes happens that a cavalry rider or a monster rider will be riding a stupid creature, for example a Dark EIf riding a Cold One. If a rider's mount is stupid then he will have to test for stupidity at the start of his turn, but the rider's Leadership characteristic is used rather than that of the mount. If the test is failed, the rider is obliged to hang on while the creature behaves in whatever bizarre manner the rules dictate, but the rider can fight normally if he gets the opportunity.

Frenzy(Main Rulebook, p. 84)

Certain warriors can work themselves into a fighting frenzy, a whirlwind of destruction in which all concern for personal safety is ignored in favour of mindless violence. Many of these frenzied warriors are drugged or tranced, and have driven themselves into a psychotic frenzy with chancing, singing, yelling and screaming. These troops are described as frenzied. In the case of mounted troops, frenzy only affects the riders. No Psychology test is required for frenzy, and the following rules apply automatically:

After charges have been declared, measure to see if any enemies are within charge reach of any frenzied troops (ie, within the unit's charge move and in their normal charge arc). If so, the frenzied unit must charge that enemy. The player has no choice in the matter; the unit will automatically make its charge move. This automatic charge is done after charges have been declared, but you may declare normal charges with your frenzied troops if you wish. If there are several eligible units within the charge reach of the frenzied unit, the controlling player may decide which unit to charge.

Frenzied troops and characters fight with +1 extra Attack during close combat. Models that have 1 Attack on their profile therefore have 2, troops with 2 Attacks have 3, and so on. If models have an extra weapon then they will receive +1 extra Attack for this as normal, so if they have 1 Attack on their profile, they would receive 2 + 1 = 3 Attacks in total.

Frenzied troops and characters must pursue fleeing enemy whether the player wants them to or not. They even pursue if they are defending an obstacle. Unlike other troops, they may not attempt to hold back as they are far too crazed with battle lust. If they wipe their enemy out in the first Close Combat phase, they will always overrun their opponent. Frenzied troops may not elect to flee if they are charged - their bloodlust overcomes their concerns for safety.

Other Psychology(Main Rulebook, p. 84)

Frenzied units are not affected by other psychology. So long as they are frenzied, they are immune to panic, fear, terror, hatred etc, and do not have to make these tests. Note that this immunity only extends to Psychology tests. It does not include Break tests in close combat which must still be taken as normal. Frenzied troops cannot flee as a charge reaction - they are too consumed by their eagerness to fight!

Defeated in Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 84)

Troops that are defeated in close combat, as determined by the combat results, are no longer frenzied. Their exuberant, crazed frenzy has been thoroughly beaten out of them and they continue to fight as ordinary warriors for the remainder of the battle.

Hatred(Main Rulebook, p. 84)

Hatred is a powerful emotion and instances of hatred and rivalry are commonplace in the Warhammer world. There are grudges borne over centuries, racial animosity bordering on madness, and irreconcilable feuds that have left generations of dead in their wake. Some races hate other races with such bitter conviction that they will fight with astounding fury. Like frenzy, no Psychology test is taken for hatred.

Troops fighting in close combat with a hated foe may re-roll any misses When they attack in the first turn of any combat. This bonus only applies in the first turn of a combat and represents the unit venting its pent up hatred on the foe. After the initial round of blood mad hacking they lose some impetus and subsequently fight as normal for the rest of the combat.

Troops who hate their enemy must always pursue them if they flee. They cannot attempt to avoid pursuit by testing their Leadership as other troops can. They must even pursue if behind a defended obstacle.

Stubborn(Main Rulebook, p. 85)

Some troops will fight on in close combat almost regardless of casualties. This can be because they consider themselves to be elite, have taken severe vows to hold their ground in combat or are simply too dumb to flee when defeated by superior troops! Sometimes troops will fight stubbornly against certain enemies because of honour, vows or racial animosity, and fight normally against other enemies. These troops are referred as being stubborn.

The following rules apply:

Stubborn troops take all Break tests on their unmodified Leadership value. They do not reduce this value regardless of any combat results, how many casualties they have suffered or other combat bonuses. This means, for example, that stubborn troops with a Leadership value of 9 will only ever break on the roll of 10 or more when making a Break test. If a stubborn unit contains characters with higher Leadership values than the rank-and-file troops who are not themselves stubborn, the character's Leadership value can be used to take the test, but it is still subject to the normal modifiers for a Break test. Use either the Leadership value of the character leading the unit or the unit's own Leadership value, depending on which results in the higher value for passing a Break test.

Characters that are part of a stubborn unit but are not stubborn themselves will not have to take a separate Break test - they benefit and gain from the determination of the troops around them! Stubborn units led by stubborn characters can use the character's unmodified Leadership value for Break tests. Note that any troops who are not stubborn but are led by a stubborn character may use his Leadership value for Break tests, but the roll is modified as normal.

Fleeing

This section is not part of the main rulebook, it is from page 10 of the Warhammer Annual 2002. It is additional commentary and an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding flee direction in common and unusual situations.

A huge dragon is crushing your friends with claw and fang, to your left the enemy cavalry is charging towards you with lances levelled, to your right is a forbidding wood and you have your back to a cliff. Which way do you run? Sometimes in a game of Warhammer, with units and terrain all over the place, working out in which direction a unit should flee can be difficult. In this article I'll be providing some guidelines you can use to help determine the movement of fleeing troops in different circumstances. There are two types of fleeing. The first is the initial flee move, the other is fleeing troops in subsequent turns. Let's start by looking at that first move.

Determining the Direction of Flight(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 10)

This excerpt is from page 10 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 in the section titled, "RUN FER IT LADZ!"

The Warhammer rules say that when a unit breaks, fails a Panic test or flees for some other reason, it moves directly away from what caused the unit to flee. Usually this is quite straightforward - if a unit is splatted by a Rock Lobber and panics, they flee from the Rock Lobber. If a friendly unit breaks to the unit's left, the fleeing unit moves to its right. However, things are not always this simple. For example, what if a unit is fighting in close combat and then charged in the rear? In this case it must flee through an enemy unit if it were to flee directly away from the source of panic. The same can happen if a unit fails a Break test, whilst fighting units on opposite sides.

So, how do you resolve this? Well, I have a short list of priorities which I go through. The order is:

  1. Move as directly as possible away from the cause.

  2. Do not move through an enemy unit.

  3. Do not move within 4" of an enemy unit.

  4. Do not move through a friendly unit.

If at all possible, a unit that flees will attempt to fulfill all four priorities. If this is not possible then it will ignore these priorities in ascending order. For instance, if a unit cannot move directly away from the cause and stay more than 4" from the enemy without going through friends, then it will go through friends as this is the lowest priority. If a unit cannot physically move directly away from the enemy without going within 4" of an enemy unit, then it will do so if it has no Other option. Again, this is because moving outside 4" is a lesser priority than moving directly away.

Now, this is where a degree of common sense is required. Which route takes the unit as directly as possible away from the cause? Obviously a straight line is the most direct, but this is not always applicable on the field of battle. So, the route must be as close to this imaginary straight line as you can get it, whilst fulfilling the other priorities. This is best demonstrated by diagrams 1 and 2, shown below.

Diagram 1 - The fleeing unit moves away as directly as possible, whilst staying 4" from the enemy.
Diagram 2 - The unit flees to the right past friendly troops as this is a more direct route than keeping 4" from the enemy on the left.

This is where things can get a bit tricky - when can the unit approach within 4" of the enemy and when can it not? There's no hard and fast rule to apply here, unfortunately. To decide, I usually follow the guide that if none of the flee movement would take the unit further along that imaginary straight line, then they will approach within 4". Diagrams 3 and 4 below show what I mean.

Diagram 3 - Unless it goes within 4" of the enemy, none of this unit's flee move takes it along its line of retreat.
Diagram 4 - The impassable terrain forces the unit to flee within 4" of the enemy.

Fleeing When Surrounded(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 12)

This excerpt is from page 12 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 in the section titled, "THEY'RE ALL AROUND US!"

A rare circumstance, but possible nonetheless, is that a unit breaks from combat when surrounded on all sides. In this circumstance, it is impossible for the unit to flee without moving through an enemy unit. Looking at the miniatures you may think that there's no way out and they should be destroyed. However, if this were the swirling combat the units represent, and bearing in mind that the unit fleeing is no longer a coherent formation, you can see how individual fighters could break through the throng and head for safety. In this case we are left with the first priority move as directly as possible away from the cause. In close combat the cause is always the enemy unit with the highest Unit Strength so the fleeing unit will move directly away from this enemy unit (see diagram 5, below). Once clear of the enemy, the earlier priorities come into effect.

Diagram 5 - The fleeing unit moves directly away from the enemy with the highest Unit Strength.

Fleeing and Multiple Pursuers(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 12)

This excerpt is from page 12 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 in the section titled, "AFTER 'EM LADS!"

In the case of units breaking from combat, enemy units are allowed to pursue, which can also throw up some odd situations. This is because a unit is wiped out if an enemy unit rolls equal to or higher than the flee move on its pursuit roll. This system is abstracted from the relative positions of the miniatures. When one unit is fleeing from a single enemy, this usually causes no problems. However, if attacked from two different directions, one of the pursuing units could have models in contact with the fleeing troops without having rolled equal to or higher than their flee roll. Diagram 6 (below) shows this.

Diagram 6 - The pursuing units pursuit rolls are less, but still take one unit into the enemy.

To resolve this, I always look at the difference between the two rolls rather than the distances. Move the fleeing unit the distance rolled and then position the pursuing unit a number of inches behind equal to the difference, facing in the direction of the pursuit. When particularly low numbers are rolled, this may mean that the pursuing unit is actually slightly further back than when it started, but for the that's the lesser of two evils. When two or more units are pursuing, I place them their relative distances behind and evenly split along the line of pursuit (see diagram 7, below).

Diagram 7 - These units are placed behind the fleeing unit at a distance equal to the difference in pursuit rolls.

Fleeing in Subsequent Turns(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 12)

This excerpt is from page 12 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 in the section titled, "I'M GETTIN' OUTTA HERE!"

All of the principles outlined above apply equally to fleeing in subsequent turns. However, in this case my priorities are:

  1. Move as directly as possible towards the nearest table edge.

  2. Do not move through an enemy unit.

  3. Do not move within 4" of an enemy unit.

  4. Do not move through a friendly unit.

Now the imaginary line of fleeing runs towards the nearest table edge (measured from the closest model) rather than away from the cause, but all of the examples above hold true. The only situation that changes this is if the unit is charged by the enemy whilst fleeing. In this case, the line of fleeing is away from the charging unit.

Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 88)

In a grim and dangerous world, warriors employ many different types of weapons against a multitude of foes. From the fine swords of the Elves to the sharp axes of the Dwarfs, every race has weaponry fitted to its preferred style of fighting. Few individuals manage to avoid violence in this perilous world. The rest wage war.

Weapons and Units(Main Rulebook, p. 88)

It is usual for all the models in a unit to carry the same weapons. So, a unit will be a unit of Spearmen, a unit of Halberdiers, a unit of Crossbowmen, etc. It is acceptable for a unit to include a minority of models that are differently armed for the sake of a varied and interesting appearance, but the whole unit still counts as being armed as the majority. Where models are varied in this way, it is important that the overall appearance of the unit is not misleading.

All troops and characters are assumed to carry hand weapons, such as swords, long daggers, axes, clubs, maces and comparable weaponry. In addition, some troops carry another weapon such as a spear, Great Axe, or halberd. At the start of the first turn of a combat, troops can choose which of their weapons to use. Whichever weapon they use must be used for the entire combat. Eg, troops armed with Great Axes may opt to fight with their swords if they do not wish to suffer the penalty of striking last, but must then fight with swords for the duration of the entire combat.

Special Combat Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 88)

Before we look at the rules for individual weapons we shall consider two exceptional but important cases. In both instances these rules only apply to warriors fighting on foot and not to mounted warriors or warriors fighting from chariots. They cover warriors fighting with a weapon in each hand and warriors fighting with hand weapons and shields.

Fighting with a Weapon in Each Hand(Main Rulebook, p. 88)

Some warriors carry two hand weapons, one in each hand, and can rain down even more blows on their enemy. This could include a sword in both hands, an axe and sword, a sword and long dagger, or any combination of hand weapons described in the Weapons section.

If a warrior on foot fights with a hand weapon in each hand, he receives +1 extra Attack to account for his second weapon. Eg, if the warrior's Attack characteristic is 1, he has 2 Attacks, if his Attack characteristic is 2, he has 3 Attacks, and so on.

Fighting with a Hand Weapon and a Shield(Main Rulebook, p. 88)

Some warriors carry a hand weapon in one hand and a shield in the other, and so are able to defend themselves easily by deflecting blows by means of either their shield or hand weapon. Any hand weapon is good for this, whether it is a sword, an axe, a club, pistol butt, etc.

If a warrior on foot fights with a hand weapon and shield, he may increase his Armour save by a further +1 in close combat. Eg, if he has a shield and light armour and a sword, his armour save is increased from 5+ to 4+ when fighting in close combat. This only applies in close combat, not against wounds suffered from shooting, magic, or other means.

Special Weapon Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 89)

Different weapons have advantages and disadvantages in different circumstances. Some require both hands to use but are very powerful, some missile weapons have long range but take a long time to load, and so on. These qualities are represented by the special weapon rules described here. Rules for individual types of weapon are listed later in this section.

Strength Bonus(Main Rulebook, p. 89)

Some weapons give their wielders a Strength bonus in close combat or when shooting. This is clearly indicated in the weapon's profile. For example, a halberd has a +1 Strength bonus, so if used in close combat by a warrior with a Strength of 3, any hits caused are resolved with a Strength of 4. Note that this Strength bonus only applies when the warrior is using the weapon - his Strength characteristic remains unchanged for other purposes.

Some Strength bonuses only apply in the first turn of a combat. This reflects the fact that the weapons are especially cumbersome or exhausting to use. This restriction is indicated in the weapon's description.

Some Strength bonuses only apply in the first turn of a combat and only if the user has charged that turn. These are weapons that rely upon the impact of the charge to pierce the foe. This restriction is indicated in the weapon's description.

Requires Two Hands(Main Rulebook, p. 89)

Some weapons require two hands to use in close combat. These weapons usually have a long shaft. Note not all Great Weapons require two hands to use and are sometimes known as 'double-handed weapons' for that reason. However, Great Weapons are not the only weapons that require two hands to use.

If a weapon requires two hands to use then it is not possible to simultaneously employ a shield or another weapon. If a shield is carried then it must be slung across the warrior's back or dropped behind him whilst he fights in close combat.

Strikes Last(Main Rulebook, p. 89)

Many weapons, such as the Great Sword favoured by some Empire troops or the Great Axes of the Dwarfs, are very heavy and require considerable training and stamina to wield. Such a weapon is described by the term strikes last.

Troops armed with a weapon that strikes last will always strike last during close combat where they would otherwise strike in Initiative order. Note that troops that charge will still strike first in the initial turn of close combat, as charging troops always strike first rather man in Initiative order. For example, troops armed with Great Axes will strike first on the turn they charge and strike last thereafter.

Fight in Ranks(Main Rulebook, p. 89)

Spears and similar weapons are well suited to fighting in deep formations. Weapons used for fighting in ranks enable troops in a second or subsequent rank to fight in close combat as well as the warriors in the first rank who are actually touching the enemy. For example, a unit of Spearmen can fight in two ranks - warriors in the second rank can stab past their comrades using their long spears.

If a unit is entitled to fight in this way then any model in a second or subsequent rank can fight if it is behind a model that is engaged in close combat to its front. Extra ranks cannot fight to their side or rear but only to their front. Where a weapon can fight in two or more ranks, this is indicated in the weapon's description, for example, 'spears fight in two ranks'.

In order to employ all of its additional ranks as described, a unit must not have moved in that turn. If a unit has moved, if it has charged for example, then it fights with one less rank than it otherwise would. For example, a unit of Spearmen can normally fight in two ranks, but will fight with only one rank if they charge. The unit will be able to fight with the extra rank during subsequent rounds of close combat.

Note that troops armed with weapons which fight in ranks can fight with the extra ranks only against opponents engaged to their front, not against enemies fighting in the formation's flank or rear.

Multiple Shots(Main Rulebook, p. 90)

Some missile weapons enable their users to shoot several times in each Shooting phase - known as multiple shots. The number of times the weapon can fire is given as part of its description. Eg, a Dark Elf repeater crossbow can fire two shots in each Shooting phase so is noted as having 2x multiple shots. These weapons can either fire once without penalty, or several times with a -1 to hit penalty for each shot.

Note that a model's Attacks characteristic has no effect on the number of shots it can make. The Attacks characteristic refers to close combat attacks only.

Thrown Weapon(Main Rulebook, p. 90)

Some warriors carry missile weapons which are designed to be thrown, such as javelins or throwing axes. These generally have a short range, but as they are aimed individually, they can be very accurate.

Thrown weapons do not suffer the usual to hit penalties for shooting at long range or for moving and shooting. Note that this doesn't entitle the warrior to throw his missile if he charges or marches, it is simply that the usual -1 to hit penalty for moving whilst shooting does not apply.

Move-or-Fire(Main Rulebook, p. 90)

Some missile weapons take a long time to load, such as crossbows and handguns. So, a model that is armed with a move-or-fire weapon may not fire his weapon if he has moved at all during that turn. It doesn't matter if the model was forced to move by some compulsory action or by magic. Any movement will prevent the model from shooting, even the simple act of turning round.

Armour Piercing(Main Rulebook, p. 90)

Certain weapons, most notably blackpowder weapons such as handguns, are even better at penetrating armour than their Strength value suggests. Therefore, the enemy Armour save is reduced by an additional -1. For example, an Armour piercing weapon that has Strength 4 would have a -2 Armour save modifier rather than -1.

List of Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 90)

Listed on the following pages are some of the many and varied types of weapon used by warriors in the Warhammer world. The weapons that are covered here are chose most commonly and universally used rather than a comprehensive list. Unusual weapons and weapons which are specific to individual races or armies are covered in the Army book for that particular race.

Close Combat Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

Close Combat weapons are just that... weapons which are used in close combat. Most warriors carry at least a hand weapon of some kind and many carry something more potent in addition. In close combat, warriors fight using their own Strength characteristic to resolve hits, but modified as indicated for the weapons they use.

Hand Weapon(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

Unless specifically noted otherwise, all models are assumed to be carrying a hand weapon of some kind. The term 'hand weapon' is used to describe any weapon held in one hand and not otherwise covered by the rules. As such it includes swords. axes clubs, maces, etc.

Rules: No special weapon rules apply to hand weapons but they do have the advantage that they can be used in combination with each other (see Fighting with a Weapon in Each Hand) or with a shield (see Fighting with a Hand Weapon and Shield).

Great Weapon(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

Great weapons are especially large and heavy weapons that are wielded with both hands. As well as great swords this includes similarly heavy great hammer, great axes and the like. A blow from a great weapon can cut a foe in haIf and break apart the thickest armour.

Rules: +2 Strength bonus; requires two hands; strikes last.

Flail(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

The flail is a cumbersome and heavy weapon that is wielded in both hands. It consists of heavy weights, often spiked, attached to a pole or handle by means of heavy chains. A flail drains the user's stamina quickly, but is very deadly in the hands of a skilled warrior.

Rules: +2 Strength bonus in the first turn of combat; requires two hands.

Morning Star(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

This is a single-handed weapon that consists of one or more spiked balls on a chain. Like the larger flail it resembles, a morning star is a tiring weapon to use so its advantage lies in the first round of combat.

Rules: +1 Strength bonus in the first turn of combat.

Halberd(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

The halberd is a heavy bladed weapon mounted on a sturdy shaft. The steel blade has a point like a spear as well as a heavy cutting edge like an axe. It is held in both hands and used to chop as well as thrust, so it is a very adaptable and extremely effective weapon for infantry.

Rules: +1 Strength bonus; requires two hands.

Spears(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

Spears are used by troops on foot to form a solid mass of spear points. Because stationary spearmen can fight in two ranks they are ideal defensive weapons.

Rules: Fight in two ranks.

Spears(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

All cavalry, monster riders and chariot riders armed with spears can employ them to ride down enemy troops with, spitting them as the horseman ride into their ranks.

Rules: +1 Strength bonus in the first turn of combat when charging.

Lance(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

All cavalry, monster riders and chariot riders armed with long lances can employ this deadly weapon with devastating effect.

Rules: +2 Strength bonus in the first turn of combat when charging.

Pistol(Main Rulebook, p. 91)

A pistol is an exceptional weapon in that it can be used both in close combat and shooting for distance. For this reason it is included in both the Close Combat and Missile lists. Pistols are primitive weapons that employ a noxious and rather unreliable form of gunpowder to propel a small lead or stone bullet.

In close combat, a pistol can be used in and hand whilst the other hand holds either a hand weapon or another pistol. In this respect the pistol acts like a hand weapon and uses the Fighting with a Weapon in Each Hand rule, conferring +1 additional Attack.

In the first turn of a combat engagement a pistol counts as having Strength 4 and also has an Armour piercing attack, reducing the enemy's Armour save by a further -1. This applies to all attacks if the model carriers a pistol in each hand, but only to the single additional attack if a warrior is fighting with a hand weapon and a pistol. This represents the pistol's shot. In the second and subsequent rounds of the engagement the wielder uses the heavy butt of his pistol/s like a club, so after the first round, a pistol is considered to be equivalent to an ordinary hand weapon.

For example, a warrior who is fighting with a pistol in each hand fights with Strength 4 and the Armour piercing modifier in the first turn of combat and fights as with hand weapons thereafter. However, a warrior with a sword in one hand and a pistol in the other strikes on Attack with the pistol (Strength 4/Armour piercing) and remaining Attacks with the hand weapon in the first turn of combat, but in subsequent turns he counts as having only hand weapons.

Rules: Strength 4 in the first turn of combat, Armour piercing in the first turn of combat.

Missile Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Missile weapons are bows, crossbows and similar weapons whether simple or primitive like a javelin or more complex and advanced like hand guns and pistols.

Shortbow(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Shortbows are small, short-ranged bows which are favoured by Goblins. Some cavalry also carry a shortbow because it is easier to shoot from horseback.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
16"3-

Bow(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

The bow, is carried by most races and used extensively in warfare. It is a compact, long-ranged weapon that is cheap to make and easy to maintain.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
24"3-

Longbow(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

A longbow is a dangerous weapon made of alternating layers of either yew or elm. A skilled archer can hit an enemy from three hundred paces.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
30"3-

Crossbow(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

A crossbow consists of a short, strong bowstave mounted on a wooden or steel stock. It takes a long time to load and wind a crossbow for each shot, but the crossbow bolt has tremendous range and power.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
30"4-

Repeater Crossbow(Main Rulebook, p. 92)(Dark Elves, p. 22)

Used almost exclusively by the Dark Elves of Naggaroth, the repeater crossbow is a lighter, less powerful type of crossbow that has a magazine of bolts which allows a single bolt to drop into place ready for firing as the string is drawn. A repeater crossbow can fire a hail of shots in the time it takes to shoot one ordinary crossbow bolt.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
24"3-

Sling(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Slings are not often used on the battlefield because of their short range. The weapon consists of a looped string of cloth or leather into which a stone is placed.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
18"3-

* If enemy is within 9"

Javelin(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

The javelin is a light spear designed for throwing, and javelin armed warriors often carry several to last them throughout the battle. The javelin is too flimsy to be used in hand-to-hand fighting. It is not a very common weapon as it has a short range, but the multitudinous reptilian skinks of Lustria use javelins extensively.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
8"As user-

Throwing Star/Knife(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Throwing stars and knives are small, easily concealed weapons. Consequently they are favoured by assassins and lightly armed infiltrators. A perfectly balanced knife is not suitable for close combat, but is deadly in the hands of a skilled thrower.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
6"As user-

Throwing Axe(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

Some Dwarf warriors use heavy-bladed throwing axes. These weapons are keenly balanced so they can be thrown accurately despite their weight. Even so, the strongest warrior cannot throw such a weapon very far, but if a throwing axe hits its target the effect is devastating.

Note that throwing axes cannot be used in close combat — or if used they simply count as hand weapons. Normal axes carried as hand weapons cannot be thrown either!

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
6"As user-

Handgun(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

A handgun is a simple firearm consisting of a metal barrel mounted on a wooden stock. The gunpowder charge is ignited by poking a length of burning cord, or match as it is called, into a small touchhole. Some of the more advanced versions made by Dwarfs have levers and springs which hold the burning match and triggers which release the firing mechanism and fire the gun.

Handguns are not terribly reliable weapons, as occasionally the gun barrel tends to explode violently apart or the powder fails to ignite. Handguns, however, do have a long range and hit very hard, making a mockery of even the thickest armour.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
24"4-

Pistol(Main Rulebook, p. 92)

A pistol is simply a small version of a handgun fired by a spring mechanism. We have already described how a pistol can be used in close combat. In addition a pistol can shot up to a distance of 8".

Note that although a model may carry several pistols be may only shoot one in the Shooting phase.

Pistols do not suffer the usual to hit penalties for shooting at long range or for moving and shooting.

RangeStrengthSpecial Rules
8"4-

Weapons Summary(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

Missile Weapons Table(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

Name

Max. Range

Strength

Rules

Shortbow

16"

3

-

Bow

24"

3

-

Longbow

30"

3

-

Crossbow

30"

4

Move-or-fire

Handgun

24"

4

Move-or-fire, Armour piercing

Pistol

8"

4

Armour piercing

Repeater Crossbow

24"

3

2x Multiple shots

Sling

18"

3

2x Multiple shots if enemy is within 9"

Javelin

9"

As user

Thrown weapon

Throwing Axe

6"

As user

Thrown weapon, +1 Strength bonus

Throwing Weapon

6"

As user

Thrown weapon

Close Combat Weapons Table(Main Rulebook, p. 93)

Name

Rules

Hand Weapon

Special Combat Rules

Great Weapon

Requires two hands, Strikes last, +2 Strength bonus

Flail

Requires two hands, +2 Strength bonus in first round of combat

Halberd

Requires two hands, +1 Strength bonus

Spear (Infantry)

Fights in two ranks

Spear (Cavalry)

+1 Strength bonus in first round of combat when charging

Lance

+2 Strength bonus in first round of combat when charging

Morning Star

+1 Strength bonus in first round of combat

Pistol

Strength 4; Armour piercing in the first round of combat

Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 94)

The Warhammer world would not be what it is without the presence of potent individuals, great Heroes, valiant Champions, mighty Wizards and black-hearted Necromancers. These individuals add an entirely different aspect to the game either as valuable leaders, or powerful individuals able to fight against vast numbers of lesser mortals. These models are known as characters.

Heroic individuals vary tremendously: some are tougher, meaner and more powerful than the average warrior. Others are faster than a typical member of their race, stronger and more skilled with weapons, or are natural leaders with the power to inspire. Whilst others have special powers, skills or abilities, such as the Dark Elf Beastmasters or Imperial Engineers.

In most cases they are known by different names appropriate to their nation or race. Orc characters, for example, are known by the 'Orcy' titles of Big Bosses and Warbosses, while the leaders of the Empire are known as Elector Counts and Warrior Priests.

Of course, these types of valiant individuals cannot really represent every nuance of distinction between mighty warriors, bold leaders and cunning wizards, but it does enable us to fight with comparably powerful characters, whether they are goodly, honourable knights or are the most rotten-hearted perpetrators of evil.

Characters often have superior characteristic values compared to ordinary members of their race. For example:

MWSBSSTWIALd
Human433331317
Elector Count455443539

From these examples it is clear that characters are quite different from ordinary troops.

Types of Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 94)

Characters such as Wizards and Generals are represented by individual models, which fight as units in their own right. However, as we shall see, one of the most useful abilities of independent characters is to join other units in battle, so that they can bolster the battleline where needed. Some characters also have the ability to cast spells. In game terms, all such characters are called Wizards.

Wizards(Main Rulebook, p. 94)

Magic is everywhere in the Warhammer world, it permeates all living creatures and every inanimate thing. Its power is there to use for good or ill. Magic is almost as important as the fighting abilities of warriors, for it can make the difference: between victory and defeat. As a consequence, might rulers and noble lords employ their own Wizards to protect them and fight on their behalf. Some of the races are even ruled over by powerful Wizards.

In the Empire, the Emperor himself encourages the study of magic so that he may have powerful battle Wizards to help fight his wars. In Ulthuan in the far west, the High Mages of the Elves practice the most potent of all sorceries. Even Orcs and Goblins, low minded as they are, have Shamans who can blast the enemy with raw magic. Of all the intelligent races of the Old World only the Dwarfs have no Wizards. Their skills lie in the manufacture of fabulous magical artefacts and enscribing runes of power.

There are many different types of Wizard but they all have a Power Level ranging from 1 to 4. The Power Level of a Wizard represents his ability to cast spells and determines the number of spells he has. These four Power Levels are not intended to represent every possible variation in an individual's abilities; they are useful categories that enable us to match comparable Wizards against each other.

The complete rules for Wizards, spellcasting, and many magic items are covered by the Magic section of this book. Refer to this section for a description of how magic works in the Warhammer game.

Moving Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

A character model is moved and fights as an individual piece, except that he may also join up with and fight alongside units of troops as described below.

When a character moves on his own he can ignore any penalties for crossing terrain and obstacles (apart from impassable terrain), and because he is not part of a larger formation he does not have to change direction by turning or wheeling - he can change direction freely as he moves. So, a character can move a fraction of his Movement distance, head off in another direction, move a little more, change direction again, and so on.

Foot or Horse?(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 3)

The following is an excerpt from page 3 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding Characters movement while mounted or on foot.

You'll also notice that the rules make characters on foot a lot more flexible than those mounted on monsters or other beasts. Again, this was a deliberate change to make players think twice about sticking their Wizard or General on a steed or monster. Not only does this restore some of the balance between regiments and characters, but weighing the pros and cons of being mounted or being on foot makes selecting your army more of a challenge.

In all movement and line of sight respects, a man-sized character on foot should be thought of as a lone skirmishing model - able to march freely, charge and shoot in any direction, and so on. This means that, until engaged in combat, a lone character on foot does not count as having a flank or rear zone - the character can freely turn to face the charging enemy. Once fighting, however, they are locked in place and can be charged in the flank or rear as normal. Also note that although characters on foot (and skirmishers for that matter) can move at double their normal rate for movement, this does not mean that they move at double rate for a failed charge. In this case their 'normal movement' is considered to be the distance shown as their Movement characteristic (more cunning devils at work out there!).

Characters and Line of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Characters on foot are able to move and see freely and can therefore see, charge and shoot 360° around themselves.

However, if a character is mounted on a steed such as a horse, in a chariot or rides a monster like a Griffon, he must follow all the normal rules for Line of Sight (ie, the character has a 90° arc of sight). He muse also still be able to see his enemy when charges are declared. Just like other troops, he cannot dash round the side of a unit to charge it in the rear if he begins his move in front of it. Also, such a character (whether be is riding in a chariot, on a steed or a monster) must take into account penalties for terrain as normal. This is because a mounted character is not as manoeuvrable as a character on foot.

Characters on foot who have 5 or more Wounds in their original profile also have to follow the normal rules for arc of sight (see above). This is because these characters are so massive and cumbersome.

Compulsory Moves(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

As characters can turn freely as they move they can also be turned to face any direction once they have moved - in order to see a target the character intends to shoot at, for example.

The exception to this rule is if the character makes a compulsory move, such as a charge, flee or pursuit move, in which case the model must finish its move facing the direction of travel. Obviously, in this situation the character is far too preoccupied with what is in front or behind him to worry about looking round for fresh targets.

Marching(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Characters moving on their own are allowed to march just like formations of troops, although in their case this represents their freedom to move about the battlefield as they will, natural dynamism and an uncanny ability to be in the right place at the right time (in true heroic fashion!). Individual characters can march at double their normal Movement distance, even if within 8" of any enemy models, and they also ignore penalties for terrain or obstacles, apart from impassable terrain.

Characters and Units(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Characters in Units(Warhammer Chronicles 2004, p. 113)

The following is an excerpt from page 113 of the Warhammer Chronicles 2004 release with an expanded explanation regarding Characters in Units.

We've had a few questions concerning whether a character's mount affects which units they can join, and what effect it has on things like ranks and targeting. So, to clarify:

  • Unless otherwise forbidden by the rules, a character can always join a unit, regardless of their mount.

  • A unit always moves at the speed of its slowest model, so if a character on foot joins a cavalry unit, they would move at the character's Movement rate.

  • A character only gains "Look Out, Sir!" if part of a unit of 'similar sized models' (Warhammer, page 100). The same applies to targeting characters within 5" of a unit. This does not change, whether they are actually within the unit or not. So a character on a horse can still be picked out if he joins a unit of infantry, for example. For these purposes, a character on a monster base (40mm or larger) counts as being bigger than normal cavalry.

  • A character in a chariot cannot join a unit unless it is a chariot unit, and only a character in a chariot may join with another chariot unit.

  • A character takes up the space of an equivalent number of rank and file models as their base fills. For example, a cavalry model would take up one space in the first rank and one space in the second rank of an infantry unit. These ranks still count as complete if four 'spaces' wide or more, whether that space is filled with a rank and file model or a character. See the diagrams below:

The mounted Empire Battle Standard Bearer within this unit of Greatswords gives the unit two complete extra ranks.
Archaon also counts as giving this unit of Knights of Chaos an extra full rank.
However, this unit of Phoenix Guard which has been joined by Tyrion has no rank bonus.

Independent Characters Joining Units(Main Rulebook, p. 95)

Independent characters can move and fight on their own. In effect, a character counts as an individual unit comprising of only one model. However, during the course of a battle, a character is allowed to join a friendly unit of ordinary troops, in which case he becomes part of that unit until he decides to leave it.

To join a unit of troops, a character has only to move so that he is touching it. Once he has joined the unit, the model is automatically placed in its front rank. Note that a character will inevitably use up a proportion of his move to reach the unit he is joining. If the unit has not already moved then its further movement is limited to that fraction remaining to the character. Any movement lost represents time wasted waiting for the character.

If there is no room for the character in the front rank of the formation (because the Standard Bearer, Musician and Champion take up all the available positions, for example), he is placed in the second rank of the unit. As long as the character remains in the back ranks he cannot fight (even with a spear), use magic or magic items, nor can the unit use his Leadership value for tests. In effect, he is out of the game. Only if the character is engaged in close combat (via a flank or rear charge, for example) can he fight back normally.

Characters may not join units which are in close combat, although they may obviously join the battle by charging their enemies (if allowed to by normal circumstances). Characters may not join a fleeing unit.

Independent Characters Leaving Units(Main Rulebook, p. 96)

Except in the circumstances noted below, a character who is part of a unit of troops can leave during the Movement phase. A character is able to leave one unit of troops and join another in the same turn if you so wish, but he is unable to join and leave the same unit in the same turn.

A character may never leave or join a unit of troops while it is subject to a compulsory movement rule. For example, he cannot leave a unit which is fleeing, which has declared a charge, which has rallied that turn (because it cannot move) or which is engaged in close combat.

As mentioned above, if a character is with a unit when it declares a charge he must charge with it. However, if the unit he is with does not declare a charge, a character may declare a separate charge of his own and therefore leave the unit by charging out of it.

Once close combat has begun, a character will not be able to leave a unit he has joined until all the fighting is over and any compulsory movement, such as fleeing and pursuit, has been resolved.

Independent Characters Moving With Units(Main Rulebook, p. 96)

If a character forms part of a unit of troops then the unit as a whole will dictate his maximum movement. He simply moves along like an ordinary member of the unit. If the character moves more slowly than his unit then the whole unit will have to slow down so that he can keep up with them.

Moving Characters Within Engaged Units(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

If a unit is engaged in combat and a character is positioned in the formation in such a way that he is unable to fight, perhaps because he is in the front rank and the formation has been charged in the rear, or because the enemy unit is smaller and the character is stranded beyond the fighting, then the player is allowed to move the character into a position where he can fight in his next Movement phase. Simply swap the character for an ordinary trooper model that is already fighting. This can mean that the character loses the chance to fight in the first turn of combat. Note that a character may not replace another character who is already engaged in close combat.

Although the above rule allows a character to move within a unit in order to fight an enemy, he cannot move once he is already fighting. For example, he cannot move from the front to the rear if he is already fighting to the front, he must stay where he is and fight the enemy he is touching. Nor can a character move into a non-fighting rank to avoid fighting unless he is deliberately refusing a challenge, as described later.

Characters Within Charging Units(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 4)

The following is an excerpt from page 4 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding Characters repositioning after a successful charge.

On the turn you charge with a unit containing characters you can't reposition them within the unit. If they end up in base-to-base contact with the enemy they can fight and take part in challenges; if not they'll have to wait.

In your following turn(s) you can move them within the unit to get into base contact with the enemy as explained on page 97 of the Warhammer rulebook.

Shooting at Independent Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

The Shooting rules are written from the point of view of units of troops firing upon other units of troops. A character moving around on his own is treated as a unit consisting of one model. In this respect, a character is a viable target just like a regiment of infantry.

However, in reality a lone individual would be likely to escape the notice of the enemy on the battlefield, being strewn as it is with stragglers from destroyed regiments making their way back to camp, and the inevitable confusion and debris of conflict. The following rules represent the face that characters are harder to shoot at than larger units of troops.

Proximity to Friendly Troops(Main Rulebook, p. 97)

A character model which is more than 5" from a friendly unit of five or more models can be shot at without any restrictions. Characters who are prone to jumping up and down right in front of the enemy are just asking to get killed, so it serves them right if they get shot!

A character model within 5" of a friendly unit of five or more models can only be picked out as a target if he is the closest legal target. This restriction enables characters to move around behind the battlelines without attracting an unrealistic and unreasonable amount of missile fire. Note that if the character is riding a horse or similar mount then he can still be singled out as a target if all friendly units within 5" are infantry. The same applies if the character is riding a monster or is much larger than any friendly units within 5".

If a character is part of a unit which consists of at least five rank-and-file models of similar size in total then he cannot be shot at. Any shots against the unit will hit ordinary troopers and not the character. If the unit drops in size to less than five rank-and-file models, then further hits are allocated before rolling to wound. Divide the number of hits evenly between all the members of the unit (including the characters), and randomise any excess hits. If the number of hits the unit suffers is smaller than the number of models in a unit, randomise which models are hit.

So, for example, if a unit with three rank-and-file models and two characters suffered seven hits, then each model would suffer a single hit, and you would roll to wound and take saves immediately. Allocate the remaining two hits between any survivors randomly.

Picking Out Independent Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

If a character is substantially larger than the troops he is with or near to, then he can be picked out as a target regardless of the rules just given. If a character rides a horse then he will stand out amongst a unit of infantry, if he rides a Dragon or is mounted in a chariot he will be an obvious target amongst a unit of cavalry, and so on.

To Hit Penalty(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

When deliberately shooting at a man-sized character model on foot there is a -1 to hit penalty, as described in the Shooting section. This is because the normal chance of hitting assumes that the target is massed up in ranks. This is not the case when you are shooting at a single character, especially if there are other potential targets to distract the shooter's attention.

Note that this -1 does not apply if you are shooting at a character who is riding a steed or a monster, as described in the Monsters section. In such a case, the shooter does not suffer the -1 penalty and benefits from the +1 to hit modifier if the monster ridden by a character is defined as a large target.

Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

When a unit closes with its enemies in close combat, character models will inevitably find themselves confronted by enemy troops. As described in the Close Combat section, models can attack any enemy models whose base they are touching.

Troopers confronted by character models will usually have the option of attacking a character or ordinary enemies, as bases will usually overlap slightly when models move into combat. Where a player has a choice of attacking characters or ordinary troops, he must nominate which model(s) be is striking against before rolling to hit.

Dividing Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

Characters often come face-to-face with enemy characters, and the same choice applies to them as to other models - they may attack any enemy whose base they are touching. If a character has more than 1 Attack he can divide his attacks among characters and ordinary troops as described in the Close Combat section. The challenge is an important exception to this rule as described below.

Excess Wounds(Main Rulebook, p. 98)

As with combat between ordinary warriors, casualties inflicted by a character can extend beyond the models the character is touching. If a character has say, 4 Attacks and is facing two enemy troopers then his attacks are worked out against these. However, if the character scores sufficient wounds to slay three or four models then the enemy unit loses three or four troopers, not just two.

Don't be fooled by the fact that models are static and the battle lines rigid and straight. What is represented is real combat! Heroes are just the type to strike boldly left and right, stepping forward to deliver fresh attacks, cutting down foes who step forward to fill a gap.

If a character attacks an enemy character, or another individual model such as a monster, then any excess wounds caused by those attacks are not carried over onto ordinary troopers fighting alongside. The attacker has chosen to concentrate his attacks on a single special foe and any wounds left over are wasted and do not count cowards the result of the combat. The exception to this rule is during the challenge as described next.

Challenges(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

In each turn before working out any close combat, each side is allowed to issue challenges. The challenge represents one-on-one combat between powerful rivals, the final showdown between mighty adversaries in the midst of battle.

Issuing A Challenge(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

One challenge can be issued in each combat that is being fought. For each combat, start with the player whose turn it is. The player chooses one character model from those fighting to issue a challenge with.

The second player has the option of refusing or meeting a challenge. If he refuses then no challenge takes place, and the refusing player must retire a character from the combat as described below. The challenger fights normally in the following combat. If the challenge is accepted, the player selects one of his characters from those already fighting in the combat to take up the challenge.

If the player whose turn it is does not issue a challenge then his opponent may issue one himself. The other player may then accept or decline in the same way. However, note that a challenge cannot be issued unless there is a character to fight - ordinary troopers or monsters cannot take up a challenge.

Note that in order to participate in a challenge, either to issue it or to meet it, a character must be fighting in combat already. This means that the model must actually be positioned base-to-base against an enemy model. A character who is not already fighting, for example because he is in the front of a formation which has been attacked in the rear, cannot take part in a challenge.

Refusing a Challenge(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

If a challenge is refused then the declining player must retire one character nominated by his opponent. The retiring character is removed from the engaged rank and placed at the back of the formation. The retired character may not fight or do anything else that turn. The unit may not use his Leadership for any tests during the same turn either, noone Likes a coward! The (so called) Hero has chosen to hide away behind his fellows rather than face the challenger one-on-one. The retired character is automatically returned to a fighting rank at the end of that Close Combat phase ready to fight in the following turn. He is positioned in the same place as before.

Fighting a Challenge(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

Once a challenge is accepted, the character who accepted the challenge is moved in the ranks so that the two protagonists are opposite each other. If the models are especially large it may be more convenient to remove them altogether and place them beside the fighting units.

When combat is worked out, these two will fight together. No other models may attack them even if their bases are touching, and no other models may shoot at them or use magic to attack them.

Once the challenge is underway no further challenges may be issued in that combat until one character is slain. The challenge might therefore last over several turns of combat.

If characters are riding monsters or steeds which have their own attacks then these fight during the challenge as well as their rider. If the character is riding in a chariot then the crew and creatures do not fight in the challenge at all (see chariot rules).

Single Character Challenges(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

Sometimes a single character, possibly mounted on a huge monster, will attack a unit of troops. If the single character finds himself challenged be cannot refuse as he has no formation to hide behind.

Overkill!(Main Rulebook, p. 99)

Excess wounds caused when attacking characters are normally discounted because all the effort of these attacks goes into fighting the character. As any excess wounds are not inflicted they are not counted towards the combat result. However, any excess wounds scored when fighting a challenge do count towards the combat result (up to a maximum of +5), even though they are not actually inflicted. This is called the Overkill rule.

This represents the situation where troops are watching their hero boldly (or desperately!) battling for his life against his adversary. All eyes are focused on the mighty clash and both sides are yelling encouragement. If the troops see their champion crushed to a bloody pulp before their eyes they will inevitably get a bit upset and might decide to turn tail and run rather than stick around for a dose of the same.

In practical terms, the Overkill rule means that it is a positive advantage to crush a challenged enemy as overwhelmingly as possible. It also means that players will benefit if they meet a challenge with as powerful a character as possible. Players are advised to avoid taking on especially dangerous opponents with lowly Champions, although, of course, even the most modest character will generally do better than an ordinary warrior.

Leadership & Unit Psychology(Main Rulebook, p. 100)

Character's Leadership(Main Rulebook, p. 100)

If a unit of troops is led by a character it may use the character's Leadership value for any Leadership-based tests it has to take, including spells which are resisted by using the Leadership value of the target. Where a unit includes several characters, use the highest Leadership amongst them. This is a very important rule, as it provides units of poor troops with the leadership that they need. This is especially true of Goblins, which are all but useless without a proper character to lead them. Leadership is important because it is used for Psychology tests, Rally tests, and also for Break tests in combat.

Independent Characters and Unit Psychology(Main Rulebook, p. 100)

While a character is with a unit of troops he is considered to be part of that unit in all respects. This means that if the unit flees then he must flee along with them at the same speed, if the unit pursues then he must pursue with them as well, if the unit declares a charge then he must charge as part of it. Some implications of this are discussed in the following paragraph.

If a unit of troops panics, or is forced to flee because of a failed Terror test, then any character who is part of the unit must also flee even if he is immune to panic, fear or terror. If the unit is affected by frenzy or forced to pursue because of hatred, the character must move along with the unit but does not benefit from any bonus unless he is affected by frenzy/hatred himself. In other words, a character does not go into a frenzy just because he is with a unit that can do so, although he has no choice but to accompany them when they charge.

If a unit is affected by stupidity any characters must move as the unit moves, although the character can fight normally unless he is stupid himself. Remember, a character cannot leave a unit when it turns stupid and stands still or moves stupidly because such a unit is bound by a compulsory movement rule, the character muse therefore stay put. We can imagine he is trying to goad the stupid creatures into activity, or perhaps he is pinned down or hemmed in by the dribbling brutes and unable to move of his own volition.

If a character is liable to a Terror or Fear test which doesn't apply to the rest of the unit, he can ignore any tests. For example, if a character who is subject to fear is in a unit of fear-causing troops, such as Ogres, and is charged by enemies who cause fear, he does not have to take a Fear test.

Follow Me, My Brave Men!(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 4)

The following is an excerpt from page 4 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding the interaction between Character and unit Leadership and Psychology.

The combat abilities of characters may have been cut back, but that serves to emphasise their real strength as leaders of others. As most characters now have to rely on a bit of muscle around them rather than pelting off into the enemy at the first opportunity, their higher Leadership value plays more part than their fighting ability.

This is probably a good juncture to clarify a few points with regards to how characters interact with units. In particular, how characters and units with special rules for their Psychology and Leadership work with one another. On page 100 of the Warhammer rules you'll find a discussion of how characters interact with units with different Psychology liabilities. The upshot of this can be broken down into several simple principles:

  • Characters must obey all psychology-induced movement of the unit, as this is compulsory movement and a character cannot leave a unit suffering from compulsory movement.

  • As noted on page 100, characters gain no benefits from the Psychology of a unit they are in except if the unit they are in is immune to fear and/or terror, in which case they themselves are also immune (their bravery is bolstered by those around them). The same applies to panic - if the unit does not panic, the character does not either.

  • Conversely, characters never force a unit they are with to move with them (though they can if you wish). For example, a unit does not have to charge even if the character leading them is subject to frenzy. In this circumstance the character will be forced to leave the unit in the Movement phase. In the highly unlikely event that the unit and the character are subjected to two different compulsory movement effects, the compulsory movement of the unit takes precedence.

When it comes to Break tests, similar principles apply:

  • Only one Break test is ever taken by a unit - characters who have joined a unit never take a separate Break test. If the unit breaks, all models flee. If the unit stands, all the models stand.

  • Characters who are stubborn do not confer this ability on a unit they are with, though the unit may use the character's modified Leadership value as normal. Characters in a stubborn unit but who are not stubborn themselves allow the unit to either test on their own unmodified Leadership, or the character's modified Leadership, whichever is better (see page 85 of the Warhammer rulebook).

  • Characters who are Unbreakable must still flee if the unit flees, because the character cannot leave during compulsory movement. Similarly, characters in an Unbreakable unit will not flee because the unit must stay and fight (in effect they also become Unbreakable).

Now this last point can currently be used as a sort of back door way of making very powerful characters Unbreakable when really we don't want them to be at all. As we have been writing the army lists in the Warhammer Armies books, we have changed this. Since this is how it's going to be in the future, you might as well get ready and play using this rule now:

  • Unbreakable units cannot be joined by characters except those which are already Unbreakable. Swarms can never be joined by a character.

Stone Throwers, Cannons & Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 100)

Some shooting weapons, such as stone throwers, have an area template that the firer can place anywhere he wants. This allows the player to deliberately aim his shot at a character. Cannons also allow you to choose exactly where to aim shots, and so can be aimed directly against characters, as do the breath weapons of Dragons, for example.

In the case of missile weapons that can be aim in this way, there is a special rule which allows characters to either jump out of the way, throw themselves to the ground, or somehow avoid destruction by their amazing luck or uncanny reactions. This is intended to prevent characters becoming targets for these weapons in a manner which is unrealistic, unfair and definitely unheroic!

This rule applies to all missile weapons which work in a different way to ordinary shooting, and which are not therefore restricted by the rules regarding shooting at characters described above.

"Look Out, Sir!"(Main Rulebook, p. 100)

A character model who is part of a unit of five or more rank and file models may be lucky enough to avoid death from cannon shot, a boulder from a stone thrower, or any other attack using a template (such as spells which use templates), thanks to a warning shouted by a comrade. Possibly one of his companions shoves him out of the way, or pushes him to the ground. A warrior spots the fateful missile heading toward his leader, and shouts "Look out, Sir!" or some such warning, and hopefully alerts the character in time for him to duck or adroitly avoid the hurtling missile. The missile slips past the character and hits the man standing beside or behind him.

If a character is part of a unit of models of similar size (cavalry models cannot benefit from this rule in a unit of infantry, for example) and is hit by cannon fire, a stone thrower, or other missiles not governed by the normal target restriction, then roll a D6.

On the roll of a 1, the character fails to hear the warning and is hit. Work out damage as normal.

On a roll of 2 to 6, the character is alerted to the danger and avoids the missile. The character is not hit and the missile strikes another model instead, so transfer the hit onto the closest rank-and-file model in the unit.

Note that some magic spells work like conventional shooting, in which case the normal rules for shooting at characters with arrows, etc, will apply. In other cases, magic works in different ways, either like cannons or stone throwers or differently altogether. This is covered further in the Magic section.

Characters Riding Monsters(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

If a character is riding a creature that causes fear or terror, then the entire combined model of rider and mount is assumed to cause fear or terror. The rider is only affected by fear and terror in the same way as the mount he is riding and any tests that are required are taken using the rider's Leadership. See the Psychology section for a detailed explanation of how this works. For example, a Dragon causes terror and so is unaffected by fear or terror - it is a huge monster and is hardly likely to be upset by smaller, less frightening creatures. A Dragon rider is also immune to fear and terror. Perched on top of a huge Dragon his courage is bolstered beyond the point where he has to worry about such things.

Mounts and Psychology(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

If a monster is subject to some inhibiting psychological effect, such as hatred or stupidity, then the appropriate tests must be made. However, all Leadership tests can be taken using the rider's Leadership characteristic. This represents the rider's ability to control the beast and impose his own will over the creature's natural instincts.

If the monster is affected by frenzy, stupidity, hatred, etc, it will carry its rider along with it, but the rider himself is not affected by the psychological reaction. So, if a monster goes stupid and is unable to fight, this does not affect the rider who continues to fight on as normal.

The same rule applies to monsters pulling chariots: any Psychology tests are taken using the best Leadership value of the chariot's crew.

Shooting Penalties(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

Remember that a character riding a large monster does not benefit from the -1 to hit penalty when being shot at. This penalty only applies when shooting at roughly man-sized characters on foot. Also, the rider and large monster will suffer from the +1 to hit bonus when shot at if they represent a large target.

Special Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 101)

The Warhammer Army books include several different types of characters, be they Wizards or Heroes. However, we can easily imagine all kinds of wild individuals with different characteristic values from those given in the army lists. The characters described above are 'standard' types. They are typically representative of their race, and of the sort of Heroes and Wizards you can expect to find in a Warhammer army. Variant types of character, those differing from the standard types, are referred to as 'special characters'.

Special characters are the Warhammer equivalent of famous warleaders and mages, individuals renowned amongst their own kind and abhorred by their enemies. For example, they can be the mighty leaders of nations, such as the Emperor Karl Franz of the Empire, Orc and Goblin Warlords such as Grom the Paunch of Misty Mountain, Malekith the Witch King of the Dark Elves, Hotek the renegade Priest of Vaul and many more besides. There are also important military leaders and high ranking nobles, such as Bretonnian Dukes, Elector Counts from the Empire, and devious Skaven Seers. All of these special characters are quite different from the standard types. Some are better fighters than others, but some are better leaders, while many carry specific magical weapons or ride large monsters.

Numerous special characters are described in the Warhammer Army books and other Warhammer supplements and, of course, players can get together and make up their own if they wish. After all, who can resist the temptation to create a mighty leader of armies in their own image, to paint and perhaps even model him to suit their heroic vision, to name and invent a past for their character, and to fight him in battle after battle!

Generals & Battle Standards(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

Every army has a heroic character to command it. We refer to this character as the General, although this is only to distinguish him from other heroes. He might be an Orc chieftain, a Bretonnian duke, an Elector Count of the Empire, etc. Many armies are commanded by the ruler of their entire nation. For example, the Emperor of the Empire and King of Bretonnia are mighty warriors who are ever ready to ride out at the head of their forces.

The General of your army is always the character with the highest Leadership value. If several characters have the same value then choose one to be the General at the start of the battle. He is in command of the whole army and represents you personally. The General is an important character because he can inspire others to fight on where otherwise they might turn and flee.

General's Leadership(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

Any unit within 12" of the General model may use the General's Leadership value instead of its own when making a Leadership-based test. This means that a unit near the General can use his superior Leadership when testing for Break tests in close combat, when attempting to rally, for Psychology tests such as fear and panic, and for any other Leadership-based test. This rule ceases to apply if the General is fleeing.

The Battle Standard(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

A General can be accompanied by a special Standard Bearer carrying either his personal banner or the Battle Standard of the army itself. This Battle Standard does not have to move along with the General but it is most useful when he is close by.

The Battle Standard Bearer cannot be the army's General (unless specified in the character's army list entry), even if he has the highest Leadership in the army. Unlike ordinary standards the Battle Standard cannot be passed on if its bearer is slain. Should the bearer be slain then the Battle Standard can be captured in the same way as a unit banner.

Combat Bonus(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

A Battle Standard Bearer can join a unit of troops in the same way as any other character. If he is with a unit that is fighting in close combat then the unit receives an extra +1 combat bonus when working out combat results if the Battle Standard Bearer is placed in the front rank of the unit.

Troops fighting alongside their banners only receive +1 no matter how many banners are involved. A unit with both a Standard Bearer and the Battle Standard Bearer will only receive +1 Combat Result bonus.

Re-roll Break Tests(Main Rulebook, p. 102)

Any unit within 12" of the Battle Standard may retake a failed Break test. The unit is only allowed to retake any Break test once, a re-roll may never be re-rolled.

If the General is within 12" of the unit as well then it will also benefit from being able to use his Leadership value. These two factors combined, the General's Leadership and the opportunity to re-take a failed throw, mean that units near to the General and the Battle Standard will tend to hold their ground come what may.

A Battle Standard only allows a unit to retake a failed Break test. It doesn't entitle a unit to retake any other Leadership test, such as a Psychology test or a test to rally. This rule ceases to apply if the Battle Standard is fleeing.

Monsters(Main Rulebook, p. 103)

The Old World is a vast and untamed place where wild and monstrous creatures roam the dark forests and tall mountains. There are many creatures roughly human in appearance, though a little larger than a man, such as Orcs, Trolls, and Minotaurs, but there are also bigger and more bizarre monsters: Griffons, Dragons, Manticores, to name but a few.

It is with these monsters that this section of the rules is concerned. Monsters may be ridden to battle by mighty Heroes and Wizards. Many of these beasts must be hand reared by their master if they are ever to accept a rider, so the great leaders of the Old World pay vast sums to adventurers who collect eggs or hatchlings from the nests of Griffons and other winged monsters. This is a dangerous profession, and for many a fatal one, but it ensures that the Emperor's zoo in Altdorf gains fresh creatures to rear on behalf of the nobles and Wizard Lords of the Empire.

Monsters are powerful elements of the army. Some monsters develop loyalty and devotion to their masters and will willingly fight for them, while others are placed under enchantments or simply driven forward towards the enemy in the hope that they will attack the right side.

Monsters as Units(Main Rulebook, p. 103)

Monsters can fight as if they were a unit consisting of one model. They do not have to turn or wheel to change direction, but can pivot about on the spot without penalty. They require line of sight if they want to charge or shoot, just like units of troops.

Monster & Handlers(Warhammer Chronicles 2004, p. 115)

The following is an excerpt from page 115 of the Warhammer Chronicles 2004 release with an expanded explanation regarding Monster & Handlers.

There have been several questions regarding how the rules for mixed units of monsters and handlers work (Dark Elf War Hydras, for example) so here are some clarifications:

  • These units do not count as skirmishers, though the models are not ranked up.

  • When determining what the unit can charge, or for the purposes of flank/rear charges by enemy units, use 90° arcs centred on the monster itself.

  • When the unit is in close combat, it forms up following the rules for skirmishers - ie, those in range get into base-to-base contact, those out of range form up behind.

  • The models in the unit move at their own Movement value as long as they remain within 1" of each other.

Also note that any character allowed to join the unit counts as 'riding' the monster for the purposes of any special rules they may have. For example, if a Dark Elf Beastmaster joins a War Hydra unit, then it does get to ignore Monster Reaction tests if all the 'crew' are wiped out.

Monster Mounts(Main Rulebook, p. 103)

Monsters are most commonly employed as mounts for characters. A monster and its rider or riders count as a single model in the same way as a cavalry model, although different rules apply.

Horses, wolves, warboars and other similar sized creatures that only have 1 Wound are covered by the rules already described for cavalry. As you will recall, a mounted Knight is a cavalry model. If the Knight is slain then the complete model is removed including the horse be is riding. To represent the value of the horse and to make cavalry appropriately resilient an extra +1 is added to the Knight's saving throw, but otherwise no account is made of separate casualties for mount and rider.

This system is fine for these smaller creatures, but obviously wouldn't work for big monsters such as Dragons which are far larger and much more difficult to kill than a horse or a wolf.

If a mount has 2 or more Wounds then it is classed as a monster and the following rules are used for riders and mounts. These rules would therefore apply to a Hero riding a Griffon, a Wizard mounted on a Wyvern, a Dragon and its lordly rider, and so on. No additional +1 is added to the rider's saving throw, as the advantages of riding the monster are worked out in other ways instead.

Shooting at a Monster Mount(Main Rulebook, p. 103)

As a single model, the monster and its rider are considered to be a single target. It is not possible to shoot specifically at either the rider or the mount. All shots are taken against the whole model and any hits are randomised between the rider and monster as described here.

Shooting at Character Riders(Main Rulebook, p. 103)

When you shoot at a character riding a monster the usual restrictions for shooting at characters apply, as explained in the section on Heroes and Wizards. However, some monsters are so big that the chance of being able to find a unit of comparably sized creatures to shelter inside or nearby is rather slim. A character riding a monster is therefore easy to pick out as a target. If the monster is large target, the enemy adds +1 to his 'to hit' score.

The normal -1 to hit that applies to man-sized characters on foot does not apply to characters who are riding steeds or monsters. The whole target is simply so obvious that there is no doubt as to where the character is! You might wish to re-read the rules for shooting at characters in the Characters section to clarify this.

Randomise Hits(Main Rulebook, p. 103)

When shooting at a monster and its rider, roll to hit the model as normal, adding +1 if the monster is a large target. Once you have established bow many hits have been scored you must apportion them between the rider and the monster. For each hit scored roll a D6; on a roll of 1-4 the monster has been hit. Roll to wound the monster as normal. On a roll of 5 or 6 the rider has been hit. Roll to wound the rider as normal.

Work out wounds separately on the rider and his mount. Take any saving throws due to the target as normal. Most monsters do not have an armour saving throw as they have no armour, but some have scaly hide which confers an equivalent save. Riders are permitted saves for their armour, but remember that they do not receive the additional +1 save as cavalry troops do when riding smaller creatures.

If a monster has two or more riders (a very unusual combination) then randomise hits to see which rider is hit and work out any resultant wounds on that individual. If models are glued in place (as is likely) it will be necessary to make a note of any casualties suffered.

Excess Wounds(Main Rulebook, p. 104)

If a rider is slain and suffers more wounds than he has on his characteristic profile, excess wounds are discounted. They are not carried through onto the monster, nor onto a second rider if the monster has two riders. Similarly, any excess wounds inflicted on the monster are discounted, they are not carried over onto the rider.

Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 104)

In close combat, the enemy is faced with a deadly monster and, more often than not, a potent Hero as well. The monster will attack using its own characteristics, and the rider attacks separately using his characteristics. As the monster and rider are likely to have different Initiative values they might strike their blows at different times. These attacks are worked out entirely normally, one batch for the rider and one batch for the monster.

Enemy Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 104)

When it comes to attacking back, the enemy will be faced with two potential targets, the rider and the monster. The enemy can choose to direct his attacks against either the rider or the monster, and can distribute attacks between them in any way he likes.

The opposing player must state how many attacks are against the monster and how many are against the rider before he rolls any dice, otherwise all attacks are assumed to be against the rider.

Attacks are worked out exactly as normal, and the score required to hit will depend upon the relative values of the monster or the rider's Weapon Skill, like all hand-to-hand fighting.

Slain Riders & Monsters(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

Wounds must be recorded separately for the rider and his mount. If the mount is slain the rider may continue to fight on foot if you have a separate model to represent him. If the rider is slain, the monster will behave in an erratic fashion, possibly going wild and attacking either its own side or running rampant amongst both armies. Remember that these big monsters are often hand reared by their masters, and are likely to go uncontrollably wild if their rider is slain. Take a Leadership test against the monster's own Leadership (you may not use the Leadership value of the General for this even if he is within 12").

If successful, the player may control the monster as normal for the rest of the game. If the test is failed, roll a D6 and consult the Monster Reaction chart. Note that if the monster's rider is killed in close combat, you should resolve the combat first (ie, fight the combat until one side is broken or destroyed, resolve fleeing and rallying, etc.). If the monster is victorious than make the Leadership test on the first turn when the monster would be free to move and act normally.

Monster Reaction Chart(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

D6

Reaction

1-2

The monster makes for the nearest table edge as fast as it can and tries to leave the battlefield. The monster will avoid any troops or scenery blocking its way and will attempt to go round them to find an escape route. If attacked, the monster will fight back, but it will not charge of its own volition unless it is forced to do so by a Psychology rule. It will not use any breath or other range weapon. Once it has left the table, the monster will not return.

3-4

The monster attacks the nearest target that it can see, favouring enemy if there is a choice of two equally distant targets. It must charge if able to do so, and if unable to charge must move towards the nearest target it can see as fast as possible. Once in close combat it will fight, pursue, etc, normally. It will use any breath or other range weapon to attack the nearest troops if able to do so.

5-6

The monster remains steadfastly where it is, guarding the fallen body of its beloved master. The monster will not move but it will face towards and use any breath or similar ranged weapon to attack enemy who approach within range. If the monster is engaged in close combat it will fight, but it will not pursue fleeing enemy. It is unbreakable and immune to Psychology. The monster will remain by its master to the end, faithfully protecting him against harm or capture.

Victory Points(Main Rulebook, p. 105)

Victory points are rewarded separately for the monster and the character riding it.

Flyers(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Some creatures in the Warhammer world have wings and can fly, soaring quickly from one side of the battlefield to the other. Representing such creatures poses a few problems on the gaming table. As it is impractical to suspend heavy models over the tabletop the following rules are intended to capture the feel of fast moving aerial combat in a practical manner without worrying unduly about the third dimension.

Flyers(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

All models capable of flight have the special rule Fly on their army list entry they belong to. For the sake of convenience they are termed as flyers. Flyers are moved during the player's Move phase along with other models.

There are two types of flyers: flying monsters and flying units. They share the same rules apart from a few exceptions given later. All flyer models are on square bases like other troops in Warhammer. This is more convenient and makes it easier to resolve close combats between flyers and other units.

Air and Ground Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Most flyers are also capable of moving along the ground by walking or running. If a flyer has a Movement value this represents its ground movement in the same way as any other model. When moving along the ground using its Movement characteristic the usual movement rules apply, as described in the Movement section. A flyer may choose to fly or move along the ground, but cannot do both in the same turn.

Aerial Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

In Warhammer, flight is represented by a 'long swoop' or 'glide' of up to 20". The flyer starts off on the ground, takes off, flies to where it wishes to go, and then lands. Flyers, therefore, begin and end their movement on the ground. Flyers never need to wheel or turn, but can always make their move in a direct line. Of course, they still need to see any target they want to charge or shoot at and have a 90° arc of sight to their front, as normal.

Flyers do not benefit from the extra Move distance conferred on ground moving models for charging or marching. The flying move is never doubled and flyers charge at normal speed as explained below.

Flying Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

A flyer may charge an enemy within its 20" flight move. The charge must be declared in the normal way and the enemy has the usual response options. The flying move is not doubled Like a ground charge is. Note that a flyer must be able to see its intended target when charges are declared as normal, and can fly over models and scenery which would stop the charge of a normal model. Flyers that charge their enemy are placed into base contact with the enemy unit in a normal manner (ie, flyers are positioned to the sides if the attack comes from the flank, to the rear if it comes from behind, etc).

Move Penalties and Restrictions(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Flyers suffer no movement penalties for changing direction, overflying scenery, or crossing obstacles. They may overfly other models, including enemy troops, without penalty. Flyers may not move, land in or take off from within a wood. If flyers wish to enter a wood, they must land outside it and walk inside using their ground movement in the next turn. Note that this applies to any terrain that both players consider would prohibit flying.

Flyers may not land on top of enemy formations - if they wish to attack an enemy they must engage in combat as described above.

Working Out Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Close combat between flyers and their enemies is worked out in the same way as other combat, because flying monsters land at the end of their flying charge and then fight normally on the ground. Work out casualties for both sides and calculate the combat results as normal. The losing side must take a Break test and, if it fails, must flee just like in any other combat.

Fleeing Flyers(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

The distance flyers flee is usually based on their flying Move rather than their ground Move. The normal flee distance for flyers is therefore 3D6" in common with all models whose move is more than 6". If flyers must flee along the ground due to some constraint which prevents them from flying, for example, if they are in the middle of a wood, then they flee 2D6" or 3D6" depending on their Movement characteristic, just like other troops.

Flyers pursue fleeing enemy in exactly the same way as ordinary troops. Their normal pursuit rate is therefore 3D6" and the same comments apply as for fleeing.

Units of Flyers(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Most flyers are monsters, but some units of troops can fly too. Such units are clearly identified in their army lists. They follow all the normal rules for flyers given above, apart from the exceptions noted below.

Skirmish(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Flying units always operate as skirmishers.

Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 106)

Characters can never join units of flyers, even if they ride flying creatures. This is because characters ride large flying monsters, which are nowhere near as manoeuvrable as the light, fast creatures of flying units and will slow them down considerably.

Standards, Musicians & Champions(Main Rulebook, p. 108)

So far we have described units as consisting of identical rank-and-file troops. However, more often than not, warriors march to war under the leadership of a captain or some other officer, to the accompaniment of a drum or horn and beneath the fluttering standards of their cities and rulers. The regiments of the Empire march under flags bearing the arms of their Electors and their Emperor. Bretonnians go to war before the glittering heraldic banners of their lords and King. Orcs wave banners covered in glyphs proclaiming the might and power of their chieftains.

Standards and drums also have a practical value: they are used to signal to the troops, direct their unit's movement and provide a highly visible point around which formation changes and manoeuvres can be made. The rules that follow represent the boost that Standards and Musicians give to a unit's fighting prowess.

Position Within the Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 108)

The unit's Standard Bearer, Musician, Champion and any characters within it, must be placed in the front rank. When the unit turns round to face the side or rear, its Champion, together with the Standard Bearer, Musician and any characters in the unit, are automatically rearranged into the new front rank.

Except, as discussed elsewhere, these special models, including any characters that have joined the unit, are always positioned in the front rank, with the Standard Bearer in the middle. Only if all the character models cannot fit into the front rank alongside the Musician and Standard Bearer are they placed into the second rank. Characters in the second rank cannot take part in close combat in any way unless they are directly engaged, via a flank charge for example.

Standards(Main Rulebook, p. 108)

A unit of troops may carry a standard which might take the form of a flag, banner, totemic idol or similar device. The standard is carried by a Standard Bearer. He is assumed to be armed and armoured like the other models in the unit and fights in exactly the same way. Although the model might actually lack a shield or substitute a spear for a sword, such things are ignored as making no difference to the unit's overall fighting ability. The Standard Bearer also has to carry a banner as well as fight, but he is chosen from the meanest and most determined individuals in the unit, and this more than makes up for any disadvantage suffered because of the weight and inconvenience of his standard or difference in his armour or weaponry.

The enemy cannot specifically attack Standard Bearers or Musicians as he can character models. Standard Bearers are not normally removed as casualties, as it is assumed that if the Standard Bearer were killed another warrior would pick up the banner and take his place. Therefore, the player can always remove an ordinary warrior in preference to a Standard Bearer, even if the ordinary warrior is not in base contact with the enemy.

Combat Result Bonus(Main Rulebook, p. 108)

If a unit includes a Standard Bearer then it will be more determined than ever to beat its foe. A unit which has a Standard Bearer may therefore add +1 to its combat result when deciding which side has won a close combat. See the Close Combat section for a complete description of how to work out which side has won a combat.

Capturing Standards(Main Rulebook, p. 109)

If a unit is defeated in close combat and subsequently breaks and flees then the enemy automatically captures its standard if they pursue. The standard is captured regardless of whether the pursuers catch and destroy the fleeing troops. Standards are also captured if an enemy unit is completely destroyed in close combat.

If victors do not pursue then the standard is lost in the tide of battle but it is not captured. In either case, the Standard Bearer model is removed from the unit, and in the case of a unit which is not destroyed, it is replaced with an ordinary trooper model.

Note that standards are only lost if the unit is defeated and broken in close combat, not if the unit flees after it has panicked or because of a failed Fear test.

Captured standards may be placed behind the unit which captured them and carried about as trophies for the rest of the game. Trophies have no fighting value; they are merely used to indicate that the unit has captured its adversary's flag. The player's Standard Bearer model is surrendered for the duration of the game and his jubilant enemy places it behind his unit to proclaim his victory (or removes it from the table if this is more convenient).

Trophies may be recaptured along with the defeated unit's own standard if it breaks and flees from combat. Captured trophies may therefore be recaptured by defeating the unit that has them, thereby avenging their initial loss and restoring them to a proper place of honour.

Once the game is over, a player can claim extra Victory points for standards he has captured and still holds, as described in the Scenarios section.

Musicians(Main Rulebook, p. 109)

An army marches under its banners but it does so to the beat of drums and the call of blaring horns. A unit of troops may include a Musician model, either a horn blower or a drummer, to accompany it into battle. Like Standard Bearers, Musicians fight just like an ordinary member of their unit, even if the model itself has slight variances in armour or weaponry. Also Like Standard Bearers, the player does not have to remove Musicians but can substitute an ordinary model instead. Unlike Standard Bearers, Musicians are not removed automatically when a unit breaks and flees from combat. Their instruments are somewhat lighter and less cumbersome than a weighty standard. Musicians cannot be captured as trophies.

A Musician model is placed in the front rank of its unit. His effect on the fighting ability of the unit is not as great as a Standard Bearer but is useful nonetheless.

Rallying and Drawn Combats(Main Rulebook, p. 109)

If a unit of troops has a Musician in its front rank then an inspiring horn blast or rousing drum beat can turn retreat into a stalwart defence.

A fleeing unit with a Musician will gain a +1 Leadership bonus in any attempt to rally (note that a unit's Leadership cannot be increased to more than 10 in this way). Also, if close combat is drawn but one side has a Musician and the other doesn't, the side with a Musician wins the combat by one point. If both sides have a Musician then the result is still a draw.

Champions(Main Rulebook, p. 109)

A unit of troops can often include a single Champion. He can be bought as an upgrade to a normal model in the unit as described in the Warhammer Army books. Champions are often extremely strong, tough or astute members of their race, and comrades look up to them and take pride in their prowess. Champions of units have various names depending on the army they fight for; Orc Champions can be called Bosses, while Empire Champions can be called Sergeants or Marksmen, for example. No matter what their name, Champions always follow the same rules.

Although they can be powerful in combat, Champions are not characters but members of their regiment and always fight as part of it, moving, attacking, fleeing and pursuing alongside the unit as a whole. If the unit has any special rules which apply to it, such as being stubborn or subject to frenzy, then these also apply to the Champion. Unlike characters, a Champion is not permitted to move and fight on his own, and can never leave his unit or join another one. They are effectively another model in the unit, the only difference being that they are blessed with enhanced characteristics.

The Champion is always armed and equipped in the same way as the rest of his unit, unless otherwise noted. The options entry in each army list tells you whether you can upgrade one of the unit members to a Champion. Except where noted elsewhere, the Champion is always placed in the front rank along with the unit's Standard Bearer and Musician.

Unlike Standard Bearers and Musicians, you can direct attacks against Champions and kill them - if a Champion is removed as a casualty he is not replaced by another Champion. Even though they are not characters, Champions are subject to the following rules which govern characters: they can accept and issue challenges and benefit from the 'Look out, Sir!' rule. See the Characters section for details.

Special Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

Many troops in the Warhammer game have unique and unusual abilities and skills. These range from supernatural abilities, such as the regenerative powers of Trolls and the fiery breath of Dragons, to the natural protection gained by Lizardmen from their scaly hides.

In the game these abilities and special skills are represented by special rules. Any creature may have one or more special rules and, unless otherwise mentioned, the effects from special rules are cumulative.

The following list is by no means exhaustive, but it does detail the most common special rules and should serve as a good reference source.

Large Target

Note: This is a custom special rule that does not appear as a specified rule in the Main Rulebook. References to large targets appear frequently and this compiles the rules from To Hit Modifiers and Who Can Shoot and Line of Sight into a single instance that covers the features of large targets.

A large target is anything which in real life would be massively tall or which is especially bulky. Giants are large targets, for example, while Men, Orcs, Elves, Ogres, Cannons and the vast majority of troops are not. In every case, a creature's description in the relevant Army book will inform you whether it is a large target or not. Cavalry riders are not considered to be large targets if they are riding horses, wolves, boars or comparable beasts. Dragons, Greater Daemons and certain war machines are large targets. The following rules apply to large targets:

  • Units which are shooting at a large target get a +1 to hit bonus.

  • Large targets can see and shoot at targets over interposing models normal-sized models (and vice versa).

  • Large targets moving along the ground cannot charge through any interposing models.

Scouts(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

These troops are skilled at sneaking forwards to scout out the enemy before the main force arrives. By making the best use of cover, advancing at night, or with other troops providing a diversion, they are able to deploy ahead of the rest of the army.

Scouts are set up after both armies have been deployed. They can be set up anywhere on the table, at least 10" away from the enemy and must be out of the sight of any enemy troops and in or behind interposing terrain (not out in the open!). If both armies contain troops with this ability, each player should roll a D6, with the player scoring the highest choosing whether be deploys before or after the enemy's Scouts. Two opposing groups of Scouts cannot be set up within 10" of each other.

Alternatively, Scouts can be placed on the controlling player's deployment zone like any other troops, after deployment of both main armies is finished.

Immune to Psychology(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

Some warriors and creatures in the Warhammer world are almost completely fearless, or such grizzled veterans that scenes which would make lesser troops panic have no effect on them.

Troops that are immune to psychology are never affected by fear, terror, frenzy or any other Psychology rules. Troops immune to Psychology may never flee as a charge reaction - they are far too proud and brave to do this! These troops still have to take Break tests as normal.

Unbreakable(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

Some creatures are utterly fearless and will never give up a battle, no matter how hopeless the situation might be. This could be because of the troops' extreme bravery, or because the creatures fighting are not truly alive.

These troops never break in close combat, and they are also immune to panic, terror and fear or any other Psychology rules. If defeated in close combat (even by fear-causing creatures that outnumber them) unbreakable troops continue to fight on regardless of results. They may never, however, declare that they are fleeing as a charge reaction, as they will literally die fighting under any circumstances.

Scaly Skin(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

Some creatures, the reptilian Lizardmen in particular, have tough, scaly skin which acts exactly like armour. This save can be variable. Lizardmen Skinks, for example, have a scaly skin save of 6+, while mighty Dragons could have a save of 3+ or more! The effectiveness of the scaly skin can be combined with armour, so a model with a 5+ scaly skin save and a shield would have a 4+ save. Note that scaly skin is an armour save for all intents and purposes, and may be modified by high Strength, etc.

Killing Blow(Main Rulebook, p. 112)

Some warriors have honed the craft of killing into an art. Tales are told of the master swordsman of the White Tower who can decapitate a man with one stroke of their blade - their victims barely registering the sword leaving its scabbard.

If a model with the Killing Blow special ability rolls a 6 when rolling to wound, he automatically slays his opponent without recourse to a saving throw, apart from Ward saves.

This attack is only effective against roughly man-sized opponents such as Men, Orcs, Elves, Beastmen, etc. It has no effect on big creatures such as Ogres or Dragons, or things like swarms which consist of several creatures. It can be used against models mounted on steeds or monsters as long as the riders themselves are roughly man-sized.

Note: From Warhammer Annual 2002, Gav Thorpe clarified Regeneration has no effect on successful Killing Blows.

Regeneration(Main Rulebook, p. 113)

A creature with this ability may try to regenerate any wound on a D6 roll of 4+. Only one attempt may be made on each wound to regenerate it.

Troops that are able to can regenerate damage if not too badly hurt. Work this out as follows. When attacked in close combat, shot at, or the target of spells, calculate the number of wounds suffered as normal. Once all attacks for the phase have been made, the creature may try to regenerate. Roll a D6 for each wound suffered during that phase. If a 4 or more is rolled, that wound has regenerated. You may only try to regenerate any single wound once. Any regenerated wounds are reinstated, and models removed as casualties are replaced if enough wounds are regenerated.

The results of combat, panic, etc are worked out after creatures have regenerated (the number of wounds inflicted does not include any that are regenerated).

For example, three Trolls (which can regenerate) are fighting five Empire Knights. The Knights strike first and inflict 5 wounds, enough to kill one Troll and cause 2 further wounds. The remaining two Trolls inflict 3 wounds on the Knights. The Trolls now test to regenerate and successfully regenerate 3 wounds. The 3 wounds are reinstated, the 'killed' Troll is replaced, and the 2 wounds suffered are noted down. The Knights have scored only 2 wounds in the end while the Trolls have inflicted 3. Assuming no other combat bonuses apply, the Trolls have won.

Fire

The flesh of a regenerating creature cannot regenerate if it has been burnt. If a regenerating creature or unit sustains one or more wounds from a flame attack it cannot regenerate any wounds during the remainder of the battle, not even those inflicted by ordinary weapons.

Note: In Warhammer Chronicles 2004, page 114 it was clarified Regeneration has no effect on successful Killing Blows.

Magic Resistance(Main Rulebook, p. 114)

Some supernatural creatures are resistant to magic, or are protected by divine mystic powers or mighty sorcerers.

A creature with magic resistance will be difficult to harm with magic. The number in the brackets indicates the maximum number of extra dice that may be rolled when trying to dispel each spell that affects the magically resistant creature. For details of dispelling see the Magic section.

Poisoned Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 114)

Some warriors of the Warhammer world use lethal toxins to envenom their weaponry. The Dark Elf Adepts of Khaine and the Skinks of the steaming jungles of Lustria are the most noted exponents in the use of poisoned weapons.

A warrior with poisoned attacks will wound his target automatically if he scores a 6 when determining whether he hits his opponent in the Shooting or Close Combat phases. Armour saves are taken as normal. Unliving targets (such as war machines) are immune to poison as are some troop types. These are clearly defined in their description.

Breath Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 114)

Fiery Dragons and the dreaded Hydras and Chimeras of the Chaos Wastes, as well as some even more bizarre creatures, have the ability to breathe fire, noxious gas, lightning or even stranger breath weapons.

A model with a breath weapon may use it in the Shooting phase. Use the Flame template, placing the broad end over your intended target as you wish and the narrow end next to the creature's head. Any model that lies completely under the template is hit automatically - models whose bases lie partially under the template are hit on a 4+. The strength and any special effects of the breath weapon will be detailed in the entry for each individual creature. Characters under the template are eligible for 'Look out, Sir!' rolls if they are in a unit.

The teardrop-shaped template is placed with the thin end at the Dragon's mouth and the wide end over the target unit. In this example, four models are completely under the template and are hit automatically. Eleven models are partially covered and are hit on a 4+.

Breath weapons may not be used as a stand & shoot charge reaction, and neither can they be used in close combat. A creature with a breath weapon needs time to belch forth its flames!

Flammable(Main Rulebook, p. 114)

Some creatures, such as Undead Mummies and Treemen, burn easily. A flammable creature hit by a flaming weapon or fiery spell will take double wounds, so every wound suffered by a flammable creature will be doubled to 2 wounds. Take any saves before multiplying the wounds.

Skirmishers(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

A skirmish is an encounter between small groups fighting in loose or dispersed formation rather than formal ranks and files. Such an encounter might take place over a broad area of woodland or a group of buildings, where skirmishers can spread out to infiltrate the wood or occupy buildings. In a battle, only specified troops are allowed to skirmish, as indicated in their Army book. However, any units can adopt a skirmish formation in order to enter buildings, as described in the Buildings section.

Formation(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

A unit which can skirmish never moves in a rigid formation of ranks and files. Instead, it moves as a loose group or rough line. This enables skirmishers to move more quickly and to take advantage of minor folds in the ground, scrub, and other small features to shelter from shooting. The Warhammer Army books indicate which units are able to skirmish.

1" Apart(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Skirmishers are deployed on the battlefield in a formation consisting of a loose group. Models in a skirmishing unit are positioned up to 1" apart so that they are not touching each other.

Scouts(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 7)

The following is an excerpt from page 7 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding the Skirmishers deploying as Scouts.

Many skirmishing units are also Scouts, and can therefore deploy further onto the battlefield. Combined with the special movement rules of skirmishers, these units can work their way towards the enemy deployment zone very quickly. Not only does this threaten war engines and the rear of your enemy's advancing units, this can also stop your foe from marching, causing no end of havoc to a well thought out battle plan.

However, there are restrictions on where Scouts can be deployed. A canny opponent who is facing an army they know might contain Scouts will take this element into consideration. As Scouts have to deploy out of sight of the enemy, most Warhammer battlefields will only have a few places where Scouts can deploy. With regards to the deployment of Scouts, units are assumed to have a line of sight outside their normal arc of 90° to the front. The best way to think of this is to deploy the Scouts in a position where they cannot see the enemy, which by default means that the enemy cannot see them. This is to prevent Scouts ending up in an odd position deep inside the enemy deployment zone just because enemy units happen to be facing the front.

There is also the added restriction that Scouts must be 10" or more from the enemy. This means that if you deploy your army so that potential hiding places for Scouts (inside a wood for example) are within 10" of a unit, you can narrow down their potential deployment areas. This 10" restriction exists to make sure that Scouts can't stop the enemy marching on the first turn - Scouts and skirmishers are supposed to be a thorn in the side, but a restriction to marching right from the start would cross the line into frustration rather than being tactical and entertaining.

Moving(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Troops in skirmish formation move in a loose group with models up to 1" apart. Should the group be split as a result of casualties, or should individuals become divided from it for some reason, the player must rectify this in his next Movement phase.

Movement(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 6)

The following is an excerpt from page 6 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding the Skirmishers and movement.

The greatest advantage of skirmishers is their ability to move quickly and their flexibility when close to the enemy - slipping through the lines to attack war engines or to get behind enemy units in combat. This is because they may move at double speed as if marching, but with none of the normal marching restrictions. The particular wording of this rule has given rise to a certain interpretation of the rules regarding what happens when a skirmishing unit fails to make contact during a charge. The line in question reads, 'They simply move up to double their Movement all the time' (page 115 of the Warhammer rulebook). This has led some players to believe that, although normally a unit which fails a charge moves forward at its normal Movement rate, skirmishers can still move at double pace. The Failed Charge rules on page 52 of the Warhammer rulebook clearly state that 'the unit is moved at its normal Move rate rather than double speed'. Of course, this creates a contradiction (heaven forbid!) between the two rules. Well, I can safely say that the intention was that skirmishers suffer the penalties of a failed charge just like everyone else.

Manoeuvres(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Skirmishing models are moved in the same way as individual character models. The unit does not turn or wheel and instead each model is moved in any direction without penalty. Once movement is complete, the entire unit must form a loose group or unit with models no more than 1" apart.

Obstacles and Difficult Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Skirmishers move around obstacles or over rough ground more easily than troops in formation. They suffer no movement penalties for crossing obstacles or for moving over difficult or very difficult ground.

Double Pace(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Because they are not restrained by a close formation, skirmishers can move up to double their normal pace despite the proximity of enemy troops within 8". So, a skirmishing unit with a Movement characteristic of 4" moves up to 8" rather than 4".

Skirmishers do not double their 'doubled' move to charge or march. They simply move up to double their Movement rate all the time. Their standard move value is still used to work out pursuit and fleeing distances.

Shooting and Moving(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Skirmishers moving faster than their standard Movement characteristic value are assumed to be concentrating on moving and are unable to shoot that turn. They are running too fast and do not have time to stop and shoot at their enemy.

Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 115)

Skirmishers can shoot in any direction, though individuals models can be pivoted on the spot so that the unit looks more realistic (this does not count as movement).

Thanks to their special training and loose formation, skirmishers do not block the line of sight of other members of their own unit (including characters that have joined the unit).

Note that units of skirmishers block the line of sight to other units (see diagram). It is not possible to see through the gaps between skirmishing models.

Units of skirmishers block line of sight. In this case the Empire Spearman cannot see the Orcs unit behind the skirmishers and vice versa.

An enemy shooting at a skirmishing target suffers a -1 to hit penalty in the same way as if they were shooting at a single man-sized model. See the Shooting section for to hit modifiers.

If a character is fighting as part of a skirmishing unit of troops the -1 to hit penalty is applied only once, not twice.

Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 116)

A unit of skirmishers may charge an enemy that is visible to at least one of its models when charges are declared. To decide which side of the enemy is charged, follow the normal rules: the skirmishers will charge the enemy in the arc where most of the skirmishers are when the charge is declared. All models within charge reach are moved individually towards their foe and arranged into a fighting line.

Most of the charging models are in the enemy's front arc. This is a frontal charge. All the skirmishers are within charge distance.

When the maximum number of models has been brought into base-to-base contact with the side charged (including models fighting corner-to-corner), remaining skirmishers will begin to form up in ranks behind the first line of models in base contact with the enemy.

Any models unable to reach the enemy (because they don't have enough movement or because there is no space left in the fighting line) are placed in the rear ranks so that the unit forms up in what looks like a regular formation behind the models that have formed the fighting line.

Most of the charging models are in the enemy's front arc. This is a frontal charge, even if the closest models are in the flank arc of the target unit. Only three models are within charge distance of the enemy's front.

If the skirmishers are charged, the enemy is brought into base contact with the closest skirmisher and then the enemy unit is halted. The enemy is not aligned against the skirmishing model. The skirmishers form up as explained above and the enemy will proceed with further charges. Charging enemy models attack first in the ensuing Close Combat phase as normal.

All the skirmishers are within double race distance of the front line of the enemy.

Skirmishers will remain in this formation as long as the combat continues, and adopt the loose formation as soon as combat ends.

Skirmishers in Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 116)

Skirmishers fight in a normal formation of ranks and files but, due to their nature as extremely light troops, they lose most of the normal bonuses that apply to units who fight in ranks.

Skirmishers receive no combat bonus for additional ranks in their formation.

Skirmishers do not negate the rank bonus of other units if they charge them in the flank or rear.

Ranks(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 6)

The following is an excerpt from page 6 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding the Skirmishers and ranks.

Although skirmishers in close combat do group up into a formation resembling ranks and files, they never count as having a rank bonus. Despite this, a formed up skirmishing unit does have flanks and a rear, which will count for combat resolution bonuses. This means that, once in combat, a skirmishing unit can become as much of a hindrance as a help if there are enemy units that can subsequently charge them.

Overruns(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 8)

The following is an excerpt from page 8 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding the Skirmishers and overrunning.

In a recent battle report, Alessio had a lone character which made an overrun and, rather than simply continuing straight on, went off in a different direction. He has subsequently realised the error of his ways and under suitable physical inducement has proffered an apology for confusing people. Like everyone else, skirmishing units and lone characters overrun straight ahead; the fact that they can see 360° around themselves makes no difference to this.

Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 116)

A roughly man-sized character on foot can join a skirmishing unit. No other characters (mounted riding in chariots, etc) can join skirmishing units.

Lone Skirmisher(Main Rulebook, p. 116)(Warhammer Annual 2002, p. 8)

The following is an excerpt from page 8 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding the Skirmishers as lone models.

There is quite a long section in the Warhammer rules detailing how single characters on foot can move independently. This was to give characters on foot greater flexibility, to offset the advantages of characters mounted on steeds or monsters.

A simple way to think of characters on foot is as lone skirmishers. This means that they get all of the normal benefits and limitations of a skirmishing unit. This includes things like being able to shoot or charge in any direction, and also having no flanks or rear unless they are already engaged in combat. When played properly, a character on foot can prove more useful than one on a big ravening Dragon or Wyvern.

However, you should also remember that characters outside of units can be horribly vulnerable to war machine fire (and other missile fire if too far from friends) as they no longer have their "Look Out, Sir!" special rule. Like all skirmishers, lone characters on foot have to fight in conjunction with other units to achieve their potential.

These rules only apply to vaguely man-sized characters on foot. Large characters follow all of the normal rules for units, marching and so forth (see page 135).

The majority of the charging models are in the flank of the single character and so engage it in the flank, with the maximum number of models in base-to-base contact. The final position is shown after the charge is completed.

Fast Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Fast cavalry (sometimes called light cavalry) are riders of exceptional prowess, trained in lightning-fast manoeuvres and flank attacks. They are more lightly armed and armoured than heavy knights, but make up for this with their flexibility.

Troops that are fast cavalry are indicated in their relevant Army book. In battle, they act as scouts and outriders for the army, as well as harrying the flanks of enemy formations with their missile weapons.

Formation & Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

A fast cavalry unit uses regular formations as do other cavalry and suffers penalties in difficult terrain. In fact they follow all of the normal rules for units apart from the exceptions detailed later. Fast cavalry receives no bonus for ranks.

Free Reform(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Unless it charges, the fast cavalry unit can reform as many times as you wish during its Movement phase without incurring any penalties to its Move distance. See the rules for reforming. Note that no model in the fast cavalry unit can move more than its maximum Move distance despite the free reform.

This move is legal as long as no model in the cavalry unit moves more than its allowance.

Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Choosing a Target(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Although it may sound unlikely, a well-trained horseman can turn completely around in his saddle and shoot behind him while moving forwards! When they are shooting, fast cavalry can fire all round regardless of the direction in which the model is pointing. Note that for charging, stand & shoot reactions, etc, the model needs to be facing the enemy as normal.

Shooting and Moving(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Fast cavalry armed with missile weapons are expert at shooting from horseback (or wolfback) and can therefore shoot even when marching or reforming. The normal -1 penalty for moving applies.

Fleeing Fast Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Fast cavalry is extremely good at escaping from combat and regrouping. Unlike normal troops, a unit of fast cavalry which chooses to flee as a charge reaction and subsequently rallies at the beginning of their next turn may reform facing in any direction and is free to move during the Movement phase. If the chargers fail to catch the fast cavalry unit which declared flee as a charge reaction then the charge is a failed charge as normal. If the flee move of the fast cavalry does not take them beyond the charge reach of their enemies, the unit is destroyed as normal.

Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 117)

Character models may join fast cavalry units and move with the unit, but do not benefit from any of the special shooting rules.

War Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

War machines are an important part of many armies in the Warhammer world. Amongst the most spectacular of these engines of destruction are the gigantic cannons of the Empire and Dwarfs, but their manufacture is difficult and the secrets of gun casting and gunpowder manufacture are carefully guarded. Orcs and other less sophisticated races build gigantic stone throwers which lob boulders high into the air to come crashing down upon enemy formations or behind city walls. Bolt throwers are powerful giant crossbows that can send a spear-sized bolt clean through several ranks of enemy, skewering each in turn. These are all relatively common war machines that can be found in several armies, and thus their rules are included here.

Models(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

A war machine comprises the machine plus a crew, which is usually two or three crewmen. The crew are based separately, unlike with the model of a chariot or a ridden monster where the crew or riders are likely to be physically glued to the chariot or mount. This is necessary because a war machine's crew can be forced to flee from their machine, either because they are broken in combat or because they panic. Crew must be kept within 1" of the machine to count as crew.

Moving a War Machine(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

The machine's crew can wheel, carry or move their machine, perhaps to gain a better position to fire. Note that a war machine may not march or charge.

Deployment

The following is an excerpt from page 18 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding deploying war machines.

In most scenarios, all the war machines in your army must be deployed at one time. They don't have to be deployed near each other, and there are no battery rules. Characters can be deployed with them when your characters are put on the table (such as Dwarf or Empire Engineers), not when the war machines are set up.

War machines (or anyone else for that matter) cannot be deployed in impassable terrain. Now, this is where arguments start, as players think that different types of scenery would be impassable to war machines - we've probably all heard someone say, "How did that cannon get on top of that tower then? Air-lifted by Griffon was it?" or similar. As with all terrain, there are no hard and fast rules to apply because people's collections can vary so much. However, it is always a good idea to go over the different scenery pieces on the battlefield before the game starts and say what type is what. Whilst doing this, it is worthwhile agreeing any areas where you feel war machines cannot deploy, thus saving debates once half your army is down and your whole deployment is based around setting up your Volley Gun in those rocks.

Aiming a War Machine(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

A player may freely pivot a war machine to face any direction he likes before shooting. Apart from this, a war machine or the crew may not move and fire.

Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

A character model may join a war machine in the same way as he might join a unit of troops. Note however, that war machines never include their own Champions - only units of troops are able to have Champions. The war machine benefits from the associated character's Leadership value in the same way that a unit of troops would.

In the case of war machines, the character must be positioned within 1" of a specific machine for the purpose of allocating damage from shooting hits. However, only crew can operate a machine, a character cannot.

Characters do not actually become crew when may join a war machine and are never hurt should the machine malfunction. They are sensible or experienced enough to keep sufficient distance between themselves and the dangerous mechanism to be safe.

Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

The crews of the war machines described in this section all fight in the same way, so rather than repeat ourselves several times over, the rules have been collated for ease of reference. Note that some of the war machines described in the Warhammer Armies books have their own special rules and those will be included with the appropriate army lists.

Charging and Shooting at War Machines

The following is an excerpt from page 20 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding targeting war machines with missile weapons and how to form up when charged.

I've been asked a couple of times whether the enemy need to be in range of the crew or the war machine to charge or shoot at them. I say that you need to be in range of at least one model in the war machine unit, but other than that, this can be the machine itself or a crewman (or an associated character).

When the crew forms up to receive a charge, treat them like a skirmishing unit. That is to say, the enemy charge the closest crewman and he aligns against them, then the other crewmen fall in beside or behind him as normal. If the war machine itself is being charged, move the closest crewman just in front of it facing the chargers and then proceed as normal (see diagrams 9 and 10).

Diagram 9 - The Orc unit charges the Empire cannon in the flank and contacts the closest model crewman (A) the remaining cannon crew form up alongside the first in an attempt to protect their cannon.
Diagram 10 - The Orc unit charges the front of the Empire cannon and contacts the closest model, in this case it would be the cannon. However, the cannon crew quickly react to protect their cannon and form up in front of the cannon.

Shooting at War Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

When shooting at a war machine, shots are worked out against the entire model (both crew and machine) and any hits scored are randomised between the crew and war machine.

When shooting at a war machine, it is treated exactly as any normal unit with regards to modifiers to hit. A war machine and its crew don't count as skirmishing, and so don't benefit from the -1 To Hit penalty. Some war machines may be classed as large targets (this will be noted in the war machine's specific rules).

Once hits have been established, randomise where they strike by rolling a D6. lf 1-4 is the result, roll to 'wound' the machine. If the result is a 5 or 6, roll to wound a crewman.

Once all crew are slain, if they flee, or once the machine is destroyed, further hits do not need to be randomised but will strike a crewman or the machine as appropriate.

Hits From Templates(Main Rulebook, p. 118)

Any shots from stone throwers, or weapons that use a template, are worked out as follows. If a crewman lies under the template, he is hit. If the machine lies under the template, it is hit.

Hits On Crew/Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

Usually a machine's crew are identical, so it is not necessary to determine which is hit, but if a machine includes a character he may be hit by shots directed at the machine. In this case, randomise any crew hits to determine whether the character is hit. For example where there are two crew and a character roll a D6: 1-2 = crewman A, 3-4 = crewman B, 5-6 = character.

Charge Responses(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

If charged, a war machine's crew can either hold or flee but cannot stand & shoot as the machine is too cumbersome to allow this.

Flee(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

If a machine's crew flees from a charge then the chargers can either continue to charge past the machine in order to destroy its crew or, if the player prefers, they can stop when they reach the machine and attack it. The machine itself does not flee as such, but is abandoned by its crew and any associated characters.

Hold(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

In close combat, the crew will defend their machines. Models are moved so that they are interposed between their machine and the chargers in order to fight the enemy that comes into contact with the machine.

Enemy models can divide attacks between crew, characters or the machine that they are touching. The machine itself does not fight.

Fleeing Crew(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

If crew flee from close combat, their machine is abandoned. The victors must ignore it in order to pursue unless the player elects to restrain pursuit and passes the required Leadership test to do so.

Note that once they are separated from their war machines, crewmen become a fleeing unit. Consequently, the number of crewmen fleeing is used as the basis for any Panic tests on friendly troops nearby. For the purposes of rallying, the original number of crewmen is considered to be the original size of the unit.

Attacking a Machine(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

A war machine cannot be attacked in close combat while it still has crew. A war machine that has had its crew wiped out or broken in close combat is assumed to be spiked or otherwise disabled by the attackers, on the condition that they don't pursue or overrun.

If a war machine is already abandoned when charged. it is destroyed, but no combat results are worked out, no Panic tests required, no overrun can be made, etc.

Abandoned Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

An abandoned machine can be re-crewed by crew members from any other war machine from the same side if their own machine has been destroyed or if they abandon their machine. The entire crew may deliberately abandon a war machine in order to crew another. Crew models will not fight away from a machine and, if they are charged whilst not serving as crew, they will always flee.

Leaving a War Machine

The following is an excerpt from page 20 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding when it is permissible for a crew to leave a war machine.

A war machine crew may never leave its war machine except to crew another war machine which has no crew left or if they flee. They don't have to be able to re-crew the other war machine immediately, but there must be at least one other abandoned machine for them to go to. Note that by extension this means that war machine crews can't declare charges. If they wish to re-crew another machine, all surviving crew members must move - you cannot split crews over several war engines, not re-crew a machine with any of its original crew left. To re-crew a machine they must move so that all the crew are within 1" of it. A war machine crew cannot fire their weapon on the same turn they re-crew it. While not physically crewing a machine, the crew should be treated as a skirmishing unit in all respects. Remember that while not within 1" of their machine, the crew must always flee if charged; they never declare charges or otherwise fight in close combat.

Crew Losses

The following is an excerpt from page 21 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding how to handle loss of war machine crew.

War machines that suffer crew casualties fire at a slower rate (normally when reduced to a single crew member). This takes effect after the next time it is fired. In other words, the war machine can fire again one more time before having to take extra time to reload. For example, an Empire cannon is reduced to one crew man in the enemy's third turn. In the next Empire turn (say they went second, so it'd be their turn three), the cannon may fire normally. It will miss Turn four to reload and may fire again on Turn five. These extra reload turns are cumulative with any turns missed due to misfires or other factors. Following the previous example, on Turn 3 the Empire player rolls a 2-3 on the Misfire table, so that it misses two turns shooting (three including the missed shot that turn); and so will not fire on Turns three, four and five!

War Machines and Victory Points(Main Rulebook, p. 119)

In games where Victory points are awarded for fleeing or destroyed units, a war machine is considered to be destroyed for the purposes of calculating Victory points if either the machine has been destroyed or its entire crew has abandoned the machine (whether they have fled, been killed or moved away).

Targeting

The following is an excerpt from page 19 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding legal targets for various war machines based on line of sight.

(Or, "what can I shoot at?")

More than anything else to do with war machines, what they can and cannot target can be an area of contention. First of all, it varies from machine to machine whether they require a line of sight or not. Let's deal with them one by one:

Stone Thrower, Screaming Skull Catapult, Earthshaker Cannon, Death Rocket

These must be able to see enemy models in the direction you shoot, although they may fire over these at a target beyond. This means that as long as there is an enemy unit along your line of fire you can attempt to target any enemy along that line (see diagram 1).

Diagram 1 - Units A and B are viable targets. Unit C is not a viable target, as there is no visible enemy unit along the line of fire (the friendly unit blocks line of sight).

Flame Cannons

These war machines require line of sight to their target (note that although not a war machine, this also applies to Warpfire Throwers).

Cannons, Mortars

These require line of sight to their target. Deliberate over-guessing of ranges to attack targets beyond those in sight is not nice and is against the spirit of the rules (see diagram 2).

Diagram 2 - The mortar cannot choose to fire at units A or C as it cannot see them because its line of sight is blocked.

Non-guess Range Weapons (Bolt Thrower, Organ Gun, Helblaster Volley Gun, etc)

These require line of sight to their target.

Shooting at Characters

Something which often crops up is whether characters can be targeted by war machines. War machines that require a line of sight may target characters only within the normal restrictions (ie, they can't single them out of units, target them if they are within 5" of friends, etc). Also note that if a character is in a unit of less than five models when hit by such a war machine, there is no "Look Out, Sir!" roll and hits are allocated as normal (see page 97 of Warhammer) All hits from a single war machine in one turn are considered to be a single attack, so if it inflicts multiple hits (such as the Volley Gun) it is the number of models at the start of the attack that determines if the character can be hit. This may mean that the unit is wiped out except for the character that joined it - that's why they're heroic characters!

If a war machine is guess range, then characters on their own are fair game (not a good idea to wander about on your own when facing armies with lots of cannons!), though characters in units of five or more models will get the "Look Out, Sir!" roll.

Many people have pointed out that it is not very heroic or realistic to be able to pick out characters with, say, a cannon when a unit of bowmen can't. There are three reasons why the rules work this way. First, guess range war machines are not particularly accurate and so if you can pick off a character on their own in this manner then the gods are obviously smiling on you. Secondly, although it was discouraged (some of you may know that quotation from Wellington at Waterloo) it was possible for historical cannons and such to target enemy commanders and their retinues. Thirdly, writing a set of rules which protected characters in such a fashion would make the process either hideously complicated or open to some serious abuse by deliberately mis-guessing, targeting nearby units and hoping for scatter, and so on, and best avoided altogether.

Template Hits

The following is an excerpt from page 18 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding how to accurate distribute hits from templates, in particular war machines.

This is probably a good place for a timely reminder. Generally (although some vary), weapons with templates automatically hit models wholly covered and affect partially covered models on a D6 roll of 4+. This rule is an absolute - if a tiny bit of the base is under the template or outside the template this is a 4+ roll, none of this messing about trying to judge if a base is half under or more, or similar shenanigans. If in doubt, it's more likely to be a partial hit than a full-on hit and hence roll a dice for it (see diagrams 3 and 4).

Diagram 3 - It's clear to see once the round template is placed on the unit which models are hit. Bases which are fully covered (designated by the full skulls) are hit and any bases partially covered (designated by the half-skulls) are hit on a roll of a 4+.
Diagram 4 - The flame template is slightly more complicated because of its tear drop shape. However, once it's placed on a unit it works in exactly the same way as placing a round template.

Stone Throwers(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

These are powerful and destructive weapons that lob large boulders into the air, sending them crashing through enemy ranks. Many races in Warhammer use these devices. Not all are built in the same way: some use a massive counterweight to catapult their missile into the air while others use torsion power Like a giant crossbow. The bigger the engine, the larger the rock it can throw and the more damage it can do. The very largest stone throwers can hurl a projectile big enough to knock down buildings and even city walls!

Work out the results of stone throwing in the Shooting phase. To work out damage you will need the small 3" round template. The stone is not as big as the template of course (that would require a very large engine indeed) but it shatter on impact sending shards of sharp stone over a wide area.

Pivot the stone thrower on the spot so that it is pointing in the direction it is going to shoot. The crew do not need to be able to see their target, but they must see that there are enemy in the direction they are firing. Then declare how far the rock is to be fired. Do this without measuring the distance to that target, so try to guess the range as accurately as possible. Once you have made your guess, place the template directly over that spot where you have guessed.

For example: A stone thrower is firing at a unit of Bretonnian Knights that are in front of the player. He makes his guess and declares that the stone thrower is firing 28" directly towards the centre of the Knights. He then measures 28" towards the target. If he has made a good guess the template will lie over its intended target. If not, there's still a chance the stone may veer off course and hit something.

To decide whether the missile lands where it was aimed roll the Scatter dice and the Artillery dice.

The Scatter dice is the dice marked with arrows on four sides and the HIT symbol on two sides. If a HIT is rolled then the missile lands exactly where it was aimed. If an arrow is rolled then the missile veers off in the direction shown by the arrow.

The Artillery dice is marked 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and MISFIRE. If a Misfire has been rolled then something has gone wrong — roll a D6 and consult the Misfire Chart. A Misfire roll automatically cancels out the whole shot regardless of the Scatter dice result. If a number on the Artillery dice is rolled then this is the distance in inches the missile veers off target as shown by the arrow on the Scatter dice. Move the template the distance indicated in the direction shown by the arrow. If a HIT has been rolled then the numbers are ignored; a number simply indicates that the shot has not misfired.

For example: The player guesses bang on and the template lies directly in the middle of the chosen target. He then rolls both dice. The Scatter dice shows a HIT! It has landed right on target. The Artillery dice score is 4 - the number indicates that nothing is amiss and the shot Lands exactly where it was aimed. If the Artillery dice had been a MISFIRE then the whole shot would have been messed up as described on the Misfire Chart.

Stone Thrower Misfire Chart(Main Rulebook, p. 120)

D6

Result

1

Destroyed! The engine cannot stand the strain placed upon it and breaks under the tension as it is fired. Bits of wood and metal fly all around, the stone tumbles to the ground splintering the engine and throwing debris into the air. The engine is destroyed and its crew slain or injured. Remove the engine and its crew.

2-3

Disabled: The normal smooth running of the machine and its crew is disrupted by some accident or freak occurrence. A rope snaps and lashes about wildly, a crewman sets the machine up wrongly so that it pulls itself apart, or maybe a careless operator has become entangled in the mechanism. The engine does nor shoot this turn and cannot fire next turn either while the damage is repaired. To help you remember, it is a good idea to turn the machine round to face away from the enemy. In addition, one of the crew is slain - caught by a snapping rope, entangled in the machinery, or thrown high into the air in place of the stone!

4-6

May not shoot: A minor fault prevents the machine shooting this turn. A crewman drops the stone as he lifts it into position, maybe a ratchet jams or a rope loosens. The machine is unharmed and may shoot as normal next turn.

Damage(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

Once it is established where the stone lands damage can be worked out. Any model that lies completely under the template is hit automatically - models whose bases lie partially under the template are hit on a 4+. See the diagram below for details.

You will have to use your judgement and common sense to decide exactly which models lie under the template - sometimes it is not easy to judge precisely.

Once it has been worked out which models are struck, work out damage in the usual way. Roll for each target to see whether it has suffered damage. Stone throwers have a Strength of 4 or more, so they cause damage on the roll of a 3+ or 4+ against most human or similarly sized targets. Refer to the To Wound chart for details. A damaging hit from a stone thrower causes D6 wounds, but as most creatures have only 1 Wound it is not necessary to take this dice roll. It is, however, useful when attacking characters and big monsters.

Any single model which lies directly at the centre of the template suffers 1 automatic hit at twice the stone thrower's usual Strength - the stone lands directly on top of that model. This means that a stone thrower can potentially slay even a large monster or a powerful character.

No armour saving throw is permitted against wounds from a stone thrower. When a big rock lands on you, you are squashed regardless of what armour you may be wearing! Ward saves may be taken as normal.

The model at the exact centre point of the template is hit at double strength. Four models are hit automatically at normal strength. Sixteen are hit on 4+.

Loss of Crew(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

A stone thrower requires a full crew to work it properly – to carry stones, push then machine round to bear on its target, and so on. If one crewman is slain then the rest can just about get by without slowing up the machine noticeably. If two or more crewmen are slain then the remaining crew will be unable to cope and the stone thrower will have to miss a whole turn before it can shoot again. This is in addition to any penalty imposed by a Misfire result. Obviously, the engine requires at least one crewman to work, so the machine will become useless should they all be slain.

Profiles(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

Stone throwers vary in design - some are much bigger than others, whilst some may be positively monstrous! However, most stone throwers use the following profile:

RangeStrengthDamageSaves
Stone Thrower60"4(8)D6No armour save

Being large, solid devices, stone throwers are difficult to destroy. However, it's possible for them to become the target of other engines of war or they may be attacked by large monsters. Stone throwers therefore have a profile like a creature with a Toughness value and a number of Wounds which they can sustain before they are destroyed. As with other details, these might vary in specific cases, but a typical engine has the values shown here.

The Movement rate is the speed which the stone thrower can move with its full crew - if any crew are slain then its speed is reduced proportionally. A machine cannot move and shoot in the same turn except to turn to face its target. Generally speaking, war machines have such a long range that it is pointless moving them about.

MovementToughnessWounds
As crew73

Stone Thrower Summary(Main Rulebook, p. 121)

  1. Declare target and guess range.

  2. Position the 3" template and roll Scatter and Artillery dice.

  3. If the Artillery dice is a MISFIRE, refer to Misfire Chart, otherwise...

    1. If the Scatter dice is a HIT; the stone has struck home.

    2. If the Scatter dice is an arrow the stone has landed in the direction shown 2", 4", 6", 8" or 10" away from the aiming point as shown on the Artillery dice.

  4. All models completely under the template are hit automatically, those partially under are hit on a 4+.

  5. Work out hits as normal. Models are allowed no armour saving throw from a stone thrower.

Cannons(Main Rulebook, p. 122)

Cannons are dangerous, if sometimes unpredictable, weapons whose manufacture is limited to human and Dwarf experts. When they work, cannons can shatter the most determined enemy, pouring deadly shot into his massed formations, leveling his cities and toppling huge monsters. But cannons often go wrong. Weaknesses in the casting methods can leave minute cracks or other deficiencies which cause them to explode when fired, or gunpowder can fail to ignite or may explode prematurely. Despite the occasional spectacular accident, cannons are extremely potent weapons that have been instrumental in winning more than one battle on behalf of their users.

Cannons are fired in the Shooting phase. To fire a cannon, it must first be turned on the spot so it points in the direction of the target which must be within line of sight but otherwise is not limited by targeting restrictions. Then the player must declare how far the cannon is going to shoot - eg, 24", 30", 32", etc.

The cannonball travels the distance that the player has nominated, plus the score from the Artillery dice. Roll this dice and add the score to the distance that has been declared. The cannonball travels the total distance towards the target and will either land short, pass straight over, or hit depending on how accurately the player guessed the range and what effect the dice has.

Remember the dice will always add at least 2" to an estimate, and can add up to 10", so you should aim a few inches short of the target.

Once it is established where the cannonball hits, place a small coin or other marker directly over the spot. The cannonball does not stop where it hits the ground but bounces straight forward and cuts a line through any targets in the way. To determine how far the cannonball bounces, roll the Artillery dice again and mark the spot where the cannonball comes to land. Any models between the points where the ball strikes the ground and where it eventually comes to land are hit by the flying cannonball. This line is considered to be a template for rules purposes (such as "Look out, Sir!" rolls).

When a cannonball collides through a unit, only one model per rank is hit. The diagram below shows how this works.

Estimate the distance to the target and add the result of the Artillery dice roll. This is where the cannonball lands. Then roll another Artillery dice to determine the distance that the cannonball bounces. Any model lying under the path of the bouncing cannonball take a S10 hit and D3 or D6 wounds.

Any model struck by a cannonball takes a Strength 10 hit resolved in the normal manner. If the cannonball wounds its target then it causes not 1 wound but D3 or D6 wounds depending on the size of the cannon. As most models have only 1 Wound anyway it will not be necessary to roll this extra dice, but it is important when it comes to rolling for heroes, big monsters, and engines of war which can take several wounds. Wounds caused by cannon shot cannot be saved by armour. If a cannonball hits a model which has several parts then resolve which part of the model is hit just like shooting with bows, etc.

No armour saving throw is permitted for wounds caused by cannons. If a cannonball hits you, no amount of armour is going to do you any good. Ward saves can be taken as normal.

For example: A cannon is fired at a unit of Goblins that is in front of the player. He makes his guess and declares that he is aiming 12" directly towards the middle of the Goblin unit. Having made his guess the player then rolls the Artillery dice and scores a 4, which equals 4". This makes a total of 16". He measures 16" towards the Goblins and places a marker where the ball hits. If he has guessed well this will be just in front of them. The ball now bounces forward the score of the second Artillery dice roll. This time he rolls an 8 and the ball bounces 8" straight through the Goblin unit hitting all the models in the way.

Cannon Hits

The following is an excerpt from page 20 of the Warhammer Annual 2002 release with an expanded explanation by Gav Thorpe regarding how to resolve cannon hits.

The cannon rules on page 122 of the Warhammer rulebook contains the line, "When a cannonball collides through a unit, only one model per rank is hit". This has, understandably, caused some players to think that a unit hit in the flank by a cannon (enfilading fire, for you word buffs) will only ever lose one model out of a rank (see diagram 5).

Diagram 5 - Wrong! One model hit per rank. 3 models struck by the cannon ball.

Actually, the rule is written that way because the imaginary line that traces the course of the cannonball is infinitely thin, and therefore cannot pass between two models and affect them both (see diagram 6).

Diagram 6 - Right! One model hit per rank, 5 models struck by the cannon ball.

You should consider a unit that is hit in the flanks by a cannon (or a bolt thrower, for that matter) to have a number of ranks equal to its width. This means that if the shot passes along a rank, it can affect more than one model (see diagram 7).

Diagram 7 - If crew A fired its cannon at the flank of the unit of Orcs it could cause 5 possible hits. However, if crew B fired its cannon at the front of the Orc unit it could only cause 4 possible hits.

Sometimes a cannon ball may bounce through intervening terrain which the players think should probably stop it. When discussing the terrain before the battle commences, it is worth bearing in mind if any pieces of scenery will stop a cannon ball passing through. As ever, the diversity of terrain which people may have makes a hard and fast list impossible, but cliffs and very steep slopes, buildings, ruins and the like may well stop a cannon ball in its tracks, although the majority of terrain (including woods, obstacles and such) should not (see diagram 8).

Diagram 8 - A) If the cannon ball bounces before the cliff face it stops when it collides with the cliff. B) If the cannon ball lands on top of the cliff it bounces as normal and smashes into the unit of Goblins.

Grapeshot(Main Rulebook, p. 122)

Instead of firing a normal shot, cannon crew can opt to fire grapeshot instead. Normal targeting rules apply. Grapeshot has a range of 8". If in range, the target suffers a number of hits equal to the roll of an Artillery dice, resolved at Strength 4, with a -2 Armour save modifier. Misfires occur as normal.

Misfires(Main Rulebook, p. 122)

The Artillery dice is rolled twice when a cannon is fired, so there are two chances of rolling a Misfire result. However, the two results will be different. If a Misfire result is rolled on the first dice, the cannon has literally misfired and may explode. If a Misfire is rolled on the Bounce roll then this merely indicates that the ball has stuck in the ground and does not bounce.

If a Misfire is rolled as the cannon is shot then consult the Misfire chart.

Cannon Misfire Chart(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

D6

Result

1

Destroyed! The cannon explodes with a mighty crack. Shards of metal and wood fly in all directions leaving a hole in the ground and a cloud of black smoke. The cannon is destroyed and its crew slain or injured. Remove the cannon and its crew.

2-3

Malfunction: The powder fails to ignite and the cannon does not fire. The crew must remove the ball and powder before the cannon can shoot again - which takes another turn. The cannon therefore cannot fire either this turn or the next turn. It is a good idea to turn the cannon round to indicate this.

4-6

May not shoot: A minor fault prevents the cannon from firing this turn, perhaps the fuse is not set properly or maybe the crewmen mishandle the loading procedure. The cannon is unharmed and may shoot as normal next turn.

If you roll a Misfire on your Bounce roll then the cannon is unharmed, the misfire result merely indicates that the cannon ball has struck in the ground where it hits. If the shot lands on top of a model then that particular model is hit as normal, but there is no further bounce damage.

Profiles(Main Rulebook, p. 123)

Cannons are hand forged by master craftsmen, and each is different with little standardisation in the way of calibres or length. Individual cannons can be huge, but most are either large cannons, such as the Empire Great Cannon, or smaller cannons.

Details are given below for typical examples. The difference between the two types is range and damage. Bigger cannons carry a larger charge and so have a longer range and cause more damage.

RangeStrengthDamageSaves
Cannon48"10D3No armour save
Great Cannon60"10D6No armour save

Cannons are cast from iron or bronze and are built into solid carriages. They are very difficult to destroy, although the enemy may try to attack them with other war machines, large monsters or magic, for example. Therefore they have a profile with a Toughness value and number of Wounds which they can sustain before they are destroyed. As with other details these may vary, but the typical cannons have a value shown here.

The Move rate is the speed that the cannon can be moved by a full crew, assuming that the cannon's carriage has wheels. A cannon which does not have wheels cannot be moved. If any crew are slain, the cannon's speed is reduced proportionally.

A cannon cannot move and shoot in the same turn except to turn to face its target. Cannons have such a long range it is pointless moving them.

MovementToughnessWounds
As crew73

Loss of Crew(Main Rulebook, p. 124)

A cannon requires a full crew to work properly - to carry cannonballs, load gunpowder, push the machine round to bear on its target, and so on. If one crewman is slain then. the rest can just about get by without reducing the rate of fire. If two or more crewmen are slain than the remaining crew will be unable to cope, so when it shoots the cannon must miss a whole turn before it can shoot again. This is in addition to any penalty imposed by a Misfire result.

Obviously the cannon requires at least one crewman to work it, so the machine becomes useless should they all be slain.

Cannon Summary(Main Rulebook, p. 124)

  1. Align the cannon on the target and declare the distance you are aiming.

  2. Roll the Artillery dice and add the score to the distance aimed. The cannonball travels forward this distance before striking the ground.

  3. If you roll a MISFIRE refer to the Misfire chart. Otherwise, mark the point where the cannonball strikes the ground and roll the Artillery dice to establish the bounce distance. All models in the path of the bounce are hit.

  4. If you roll a MlSFIRE for the Bounce roll, the cannonball sticks in the ground and does not bounce.

  5. Work out the effect of hits normally. Models have no armour saving throw for a cannon hit.

Bolt Throwers(Main Rulebook, p. 124)

Bolt or dart throwers are huge crossbows that shoot a spear-sized missile. They are so large that they are mounted on their own stand, often with wheels so they can be pivoted easily A crew of two or more is required to wind back the powerful torsion arms and position the huge bolt ready for firing. On the whole, these weapons are nowhere near as large or cumbersome as stone throwers and cannons.

Bolt throwers are fired in the Shooting phase along with other missile weapons. To fire a bolt thrower it must first be turned on the spot so that it points towards its intended victim. The bolt travels straight forward and (hopefully) hits the first target in its path. In a unit of troops this will always be a regular trooper. Only if there are no rank-and-file troops in the first rank hit by the bolt will it be necessary to randomize which model in the front rank is hit.

To determine whether the bolt strikes its target, roll a D6 to hit using the crew's BS in the same way as bow shots, crossbows, and other missile weapons. The usual modifiers apply, except no penalty is imposed for turning the machine, as it is designed to be used in this way. See the Shooting section for details.

If a hit is scored work our damage as described below. If the shot misses then the bolt hits the ground or sails into the air and comes down harmlessly somewhere else.

Working Out Damage from Hits(Main Rulebook, p. 124)

A bolt thrower is a powerful weapon which can hurl its bolt through several ranks of troops, piercing each warrior in turn. If it hits then resolve damage against the target using the bolt thrower's full Strength of 6. If the model hit in the first rank is slain then the bolt hits the trooper in the second rank directly behind: resolve damage on the second model with a Strength of 5. If the second rank trooper is slain than a model in the third rank is hit: resolve damage with a Strength of 4. Continue to work out damage as the bolt pierces and slays a model in each rank, deducting -1 from the Strength for each rank pierced.

A model damaged by a bolt thrower sustains not 1 but D3 wound, which means that even large monsters can be hurt or slain by a hit front a bolt thrower. Armour saves are not allowed for hits from a bolt thrower because the missiles are so fast and deadly that any armour is pierced along with its wearer. As saves are not taken, a target with only 1 Wound will be slain if it takes damage, there is no need to roll the D3 to decide the number of wounds. Remember that ward saves can be taken as normal against damage from a bolt thrower.

Profiles(Main Rulebook, p. 124)

The bolt thrower hurls a sharp spear which causes considerable damage. The chart below shows its details.

RangeStrengthDamageSaves
Bolt Thrower48"6-1 per rankD3No armour save

Bolt throwers are made from solid wood and iron. They have a profile like a creature, with a Toughness value and a number of Wounds which they can sustain before they are destroyed.

The Movement rate is the speed which the bolt thrower can be moved by its full crew. If a crewman is slain, the bolt thrower's speed is reduced proportionally. A bolt thrower cannot move and shoot in the same turn except to turn to face its target.

MovementToughnessWounds
As crew73

Loss of Crew(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

Some bolt throwers have a crew of two and if one crewman is slain then the remaining crewmen can just about get by without slowing up the machine noticeably. Should a bolt thrower require a larger crew, then the loss of a second crewman will reduce its rate of fire to every second turn in the same way as for stone throwers and cannons.

Bolt Thrower Summary(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

  1. Align the bolt thrower on target and roll to hit.

  2. Resolve damage at Strength 6. No armour save is allowed for a hit from a bolt thrower.

  3. If the target is slain roll damage against the second rank at Strength 5.

  4. Continue rolling for damage until you fail to slay the target or run out of ranks.

  5. Reduce -1 from the Strength for each rank already pierced.

Other War Machines(Main Rulebook, p. 125)

Stone throwers, bolt throwers and cannons are common to several armies, but in addition there are many strange war machines that are available only to specific armies. These are described in the Warhammer Armies books together with the special rules that apply to them. Examples include flame cannons which spout a sheet of flames, devastating multiple-barrelled organ cannons, and the deadly Skaven warpfire throwers.

Some of these unique war machines are so different that they have entirely new rules, but others are similar to the machines described above in that they consist of a weapon and its crew.

In general, when shooting at such machines, all hits are randomised between the machine and crew in the same way as hits on stone throwers, cannons and bolt throwers. Also generally speaking, when in close combat with such machines the same rules apply as to the crews of stone throwers, cannons and bolt throwers. Exceptions to these procedures are described together with the special rules for the weapons in the appropriate Warhammer Armies books.

Chariots(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

Chariots are capable of charging into the midst of enemy units, cutting them down like wheat with their scythed wheels. Most chariots have at least two crew with two creatures pulling the chariot - these creatures are normally horses, but many races of the Warhammer world utilise far more powerful and dangerous beasts. For example, Goblins capture and harness ferocious wolves to their chariots, while Orcs favour brutal, snorting warboars, and the chariots of the ruthless Dark Elves are pulled by croaking Cold Ones.

The Chariot Model(Main Rulebook, p. 126)

A chariot, including its crew and the creatures pulling it, are considered to be a single model in the same way as a powerful character riding a large monster. Chariots can move and fight individually in the same way as character models or large monsters. Each chariot is, in effect, a unit of one model. However, note that spells which move individual models cannot move chariots as this would make them far too powerful.

Chariots have separate characteristics for the chariot itself, the crew, and the creatures pulling it, but some characteristics are not included in the profile as they are never used.

Examples of Chariots

Goblin Wolf Chariot - Armour save: 5+

MWSBSSTWIALd
Chariot---543---
Crew-233--216
Giant Wolves93-3--31-

High Elf Tiranoc Chariot - Armour save: 5+

MWSBSSTWIALd
Chariot---544---
Crew-543--518
Elven Steeds93-3--41-

Beastmen Tuskgor Chariot - Armour save: 4+

MWSBSSTWIALd
Chariot---555---
Crew-433--317
Tuskgor73-4--21-

Chariot Units(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

Some armies, most notably the army of the Tomb Kings, can group several chariots together into a unit. These are treated exactly as cavalry, though they can never gain a rank bonus. If chariots can be grouped into units, this is clearly indicated in the army list.

Any standard carried in a chariot gives its usual benefit in close combat (normal +1 Combat result bonus) and if a banner carried in a chariot is a magic banner, the magical effect of the standard applies as normal.

Moving Chariots(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

A chariot moves at the same speed as the creatures that are pulling it. Chariots of the Old World are massive, lumbering war machines and can therefore never march, although they double their move when charging in the same way as other models do. When moving a chariot simply measure the distance and move it. There is no need to turn or wheel, though the chariot still has to have a line of sight to any enemy that it is going to charge. In effect, chariots can turn to face any direction without reduction to movement.

Each chariot is pulled by two or more creatures. Their characteristics are listed in the chariot's army list entry as they affect the speed of the chariot and because the creatures fight in the Close Combat phase.

Obstacles & Terrain(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

Chariots cannot voluntarily move over obstacles or difficult terrain, except to cross a river at a bridge or a ford, that is safe to cross. A chariot compelled to move over terrain it cannot normally move through is likely to be damaged as its wheels strike rocks, its body becomes entangled in undergrowth, or it careens over a wall. If forced by circumstances into difficult terrain or over an obstacle, the chariot sustains D6 S6 hits. Apply these as hits from close combat and all the bits are directed toward the chariot. Chariots sometimes have to cross obstacles or difficult terrain, for example, if they are forced to flee from close combat. Chariots cannot charge over obstacles.

Chariot's Weapon Skill(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

A chariot does not have a separate Weapon Skill, so when it fights in close combat, the enemy compares his Weapon Skill against that of the chariot's crew. If the chariot has crewmen with different Weapon Skill values then always use the highest.

Shooting at Chariots(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

When you want to fire at a chariot, treat it like any other unit. One of your units can choose it as a target and must direct all its shooting at it. Roll to hit and to wound against the chariot in the same way as against troops. Any hits scored are targeted towards the chariot as a whole, unless any characters are riding in the chariot (see Characters in Chariots). Some chariots are large targets and you therefore get a +1 to hit bonus when shooting at them. If the chariot is a large target then this is clearly indicated in the army list entry.

Destroyed Chariots & High Strength Hits(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

Just like any other creature, a chariot can only suffer a certain number of wounds before it is destroyed. Roll to wound as normal, and take any saves that apply as explained below. A chariot has a pool of Wounds which represent the chariot itself, its crew and the creatures pulling it. When a chariot loses its last Wound, remove the whole model from the battlefield.

If a chariot is hit and wounded by an attack which is of Strength 7 or more, it is destroyed automatically with no armour saving throw allowed - even the most strongest chariot can be blown apart if hit by a cannonball!

If a chariot is destroyed, all of its crew are automatically killed. Any characters in the chariot (see below) will suffer a single S5 hit if it is destroyed. If they survive, they may continue to fight on foot. Survivors are placed within 2" of the place where the chariot was. If the chariot was in close combat before it was destroyed, any surviving characters will continue the fight on foot.

Chariot Saves(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

Most chariots have an armour save, just like troops, to take into account their heavy construction and the protection they offer to their crew. The army list entry clearly indicates the armour save value of each chariot.

Characters in Chariots(Main Rulebook, p. 127)

Characters can ride chariots in much the same way as large monsters. When shooting at a chariot, the hits are randomised between the character riding the chariot and the chariot itself. Roll a D6: on a roll of 6 the attack hits the character. Work out damage in the normal manner, except that the character either gains a +2 armour save bonus for riding the chariot or can use the armour save value of the chariot, whichever is the highest.

In close combat, enemies can choose whether to attack either the chariot or the character riding it.

Chariot Attack(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Chariots are heavy, lumbering machines, which cause considerable damage when they charge. In addition to this, the crew and steeds pulling the chariot may attack, making a chariot extremely dangerous in combat when it charges.

Impact Hits(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

When a chariot charges a unit, it causes D6 hits with its own Strength. The number of hits is increased by +1 if the chariot is equipped with scythed wheels. These hits are inflicted first, before the close combat begins, and any wounds caused by the charging chariot count cowards the combat resolution as normal. Remove any casualties as detailed in the Close Combat section. Like other casualties of close combat, the models killed by the impact hits do not get to fight.

The main danger from a chariot comes during its charge, so it is vitally important that it isn't outmanoeuvered and charged by the enemy. Chariots caught out in this way get no impact hits and are likely to be overwhelmed.

Impact hits against a unit of troops are worked out against the troops rather than against any characters in the unit (including the unit Champion). If a chariot charges against a single character on his own then the impact hits will obviously strike the character, but in other cases it is assumed that the character is canny enough to avoid the crushing chariot.

If a chariot charges another chariot ridden by a character, or a monster ridden by a character, the impact hits are never worked out against the character but rather against his chariot or mount. Crew and creatures pulling the chariot may attack the rider as normal.

Crew Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Chariot crew may fight against enemy in contact with the chariot whether to its front, side or rear. They strike blows in normal Initiative order and attack during a charge, exactly like other warriors. All crew (usually two) fight, including the driver.

Crew and chariots may also shoot any of their missile weapons in the Shooting phase as normal (unless engaged in close combat) though a -1 to hit penalty applies if the chariot moves.

Creature Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

The creatures pulling the chariot may fight if they have their own attacks. Giant Wolves, for example, have their own attacks. Due to restrictions of harness and reins, creatures can only attack enemy directly in front of them. Work our attacks in Initiative order, but they will attack first during charges as normal.

Attacking Chariots in Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

You may choose to attack either the chariot (this includes crew and creatures pulling it) or a character riding in it (if present). In the case of characters, the protection of the chariot increases their armour save by +2 or use the chariot's armour save. Otherwise combat against characters in chariots is resolved in the normal manner. Attacks in close combat against the chariot are resolved exactly like they would be for shooting, (except that you roll to hit comparing your Weapon Skill against the highest WS of the chariot crew), and then record any wounds suffered.

Chariot Challenges(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

A character in a chariot may issue or meet a challenge. He is considered to have stepped down from the chariot and the challenge is worked out as if the character was on foot. Any impact hits from the chariot are worked out against the unit rather than the character, as are the attacks of the creatures pulling the chariot and the rest of the crew; they are not part of the challenge. Only if the enemy character was on his own when the chariot charged are impact hits, crew and creature attacks worked against him.

Flee and Pursuit(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Chariots flee and pursue exactly like ordinary troops. If broken in close combat or forced to flee, they move 2D6" or 3D6" depending on their speed. If caught by pursuers, they are destroyed. Similarly, they pursue fleeing enemies at the same rate and will destroy them if caught.

Victory Points(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

Chariots yield Victory points for each individual chariot destroyed. Calculate Victory points for characters riding chariots separately.

Chariot Upgrades(Main Rulebook, p. 128)

As indicated in the Warhammer Army books, some chariots can be upgraded as summarised below:

Upgrade

Effect

Extra crewman

+1 additional crew attack per extra crewman

Extra steed

+1 additional steed attack per extra steed

Scythed wheels

+1 to impact hits

Buildings(Main Rulebook, p. 129)

Buildings provide interesting terrain features on the battlefield. Not only are they attractive but they can also be important from a tactical point of view. Towers might overlook the battlefield providing an excellent vantage point for archers, Wizards or war machines. Troops deployed in buildings will be hard to winkle out and are able to defend their position against a much more numerous enemy. However, a good General knows that it is not always profitable to occupy buildings just because they are there, as it is easy to waste vital time taking a village that the enemy then ignores or circumvents. Players must weigh the tactical considerations for themselves, and decide whether or not a particular building has any tactical value. One way is to simply treat buildings as difficult terrain.

Moving Into and Around Buildings(Main Rulebook, p. 129)

It is not possible for units of troops to enter buildings, courtyards, or small walled fortifications in a conventional formation. In order to do so they automatically break into a skirmish formation (see the Skirmishers section). Although only specified types of troops can skirmish on the battlefield, any troops can skirmish in and around buildings.

Entering a Building(Main Rulebook, p. 129)

Models may enter a building in their Movement phase by moving through an unguarded door or window which is judged to be large enough to accommodate them. A unit of troops may be divided between several buildings, or a building and the surrounding area. Models can leave a building through an unguarded door or window in the same way, but are not allowed to enter and leave the same building in a single turn.

Inside a Building(Main Rulebook, p. 129)

The number of models it is possible to place inside a building will depend upon its size. If the model building has roofs and floors that can be removed, then the models can be placed physically inside, which simplifies matters considerably. However, most buildings do not offer this kind of facility, so players must decide before the game how many models the building can contain. Obviously, models that are too large to fit into the building cannot do so - a Dragon or Troll is simply too large to fit into a cottage!

Unless your buildings have removable roofs and floors you will need to keep a separate record of where models occupy a building. This can be done in any suitable manner, for example by writing down bow many models are inside on a scrap of paper and placing the piece of paper under or beside the building. Point out to your opponent where troops are moving into buildings to avoid any confusion later on.

Except where buildings are really huge, you will not need to move troops about inside. Models inside the building are assumed to be wherever you wish, and can shoot from any windows, doors or other openings as opportunity permits. However, if a building is very large, roughly speaking more than 6" along any side, then this can lead to unreasonable situations. If a building were 24" long for example, it would be ridiculous to allow a model to romp from one end to the other in a single turn. Should you wish to employ such grandiose buildings then you must be prepared to either make them in such a way that models can be placed inside, or record movement within them by means of graph paper charts or maps, noting down where models are each turn.

Fighting Inside Buildings(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

A unit that wishes to attack an enemy-held building must adopt a skirmish formation in order to move through doors or windows. This is automatically accomplished as soon as the charge is declared. Attackers can move straight through any unguarded doors or ground floor windows but must stop if there is a defender guarding the entrance.

Up to two models per side can fight across a window or doorway. The defenders benefit from the rule for fighting across defended obstacles, so the attackers will need 6s to hit regardless of their Weapon Skill characteristic (WS) until they win a round of combat.

When both sides have troops inside a building, and assuming that models cannot physically be placed inside the building model itself, it will be necessary to resort to a map or ground plan. Quickly draw out a rough ground plan of the building noting the position of windows and doors. Place the ground plan as near to the gaming table as possible. The defender places his models onto the ground plan and attackers are transferred over as they move into the building. Further movement and combat can then be resolved on the plan, and models transferred back to the gaming table as they leave the building.

Destruction(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

Buildings are very tough but not so tough that they cannot be destroyed by large machines or monsters. To represent this, buildings are given a Toughness value and a number of Wounds in the same way as other constructions such as war machines and chariots. As it is not strictly appropriate to talk about 'Wounds' in this context we refer to them as Damage points instead — remember that Damage points and Wounds are exactly the same thing.

Large Buildings(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

If a building is very large it would be inappropriate to destroy it all at once. You might prefer to divide it up into several portions and consider each separately. Eg, a Lord's manor house could have a main hall and two wings. This would conveniently divide into three parts for the purposes of recording damage.

Damage on Buildings(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

The chart below lists types of buildings and suggests roughness values and Damage points for them. As many gamers make their own buildings you may prefer to tailor each building's values to its appearance.

Type of Building

Toughness

Damage Pts

Mud or straw huts, light wooden shacks/outhouses

5

2

Timber or brick house or log built cabin

7

5

Stone house

9

5

Stone tower or fortification

10

10

Heavily reinforced & barred door

6

1

Secured fortress gate

8

5

HaIf a building sustains its full quota of Damage points it collapses. Models inside a collapsing building must make their basic armour saving roll or they are trapped and slain. Models which pass their armour save may be moved outside the building.

We have included values for a variety of buildings as well as heavy doors and fortress gates, as you may wish to experiment with games where defenders shut the doors of their cower or castle whilst defenders attempt to batter down the defenses (see also the Siege rules in the Appendix section). Ordinary domestic doors are not considered to offer any significant defence.

And Finally...(Main Rulebook, p. 130)

This section includes many suggestions and ideas rather than reams of hard and fast rules. This is simple because it is impossible for us to imagine what kind of scenery you have available or might wish to construct. Ambitious players might want to construct a whole townscape of temples and palaces, sorcerer's towers, public squares and who knows what! Rules for castles, keeps and towers rules discussed in the Siege section.

If you make your own buildings, you will no doubt want to incorporate interesting features such as spiral stairways, sweeping bridges, gatehouses, drawbridges and so on. For example, a winding staircase could take half a turn to climb or a turn if it is very long, or a narrow corridor could allow passage to only four models per turn. Such matters are left to players to determine as they feel appropriate.

Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

This section introduces such things as mighty Wizards, magical spells and sorcerous items into the Warhammer game. In the Warhammer world, magic is a very real force - a force to be both feared and respected. Only beings that possess awesome mental and physical power can even hope to bend the powers of magic to their will. Lesser persons would be consumed in an instant - their minds torn apart by unfettered energies and their souls dragged to the darkest underworld by cackling daemons. Even the most accomplished sorcerers walk a narrow path between ultimate power and eternal damnation.

You will learn much from the pages that follow about how magic works in the Warhammer world, about the different kinds of spells, and about the ever present dangers of meddling with dark, sorcerous forces. Before we begin, let us make sure that we are properly prepared!

Wizards(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

In the Warhammer game we commonly refer to a model able to cast spells as a Wizard. Some races use different terms, such as Sorcerer, Mage, Shaman or Seer, but all of these and others are considered to be types of Wizard. Their use in the game is covered by the rules described on the Magic section.

Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

In the player's Magic phase, his Wizards can cast spells. These can be terribly destructive, or powerfully protective, or might confer special abilities on the caster or other models. A comprehensive list of spells is given later. Some races have their own unique types of spell which they can use instead of those in this book. These are not described here as there are a great many, and they are only of specific interest to a player who owns that particular army. They are therefore included in the Warhammer Army book for each race.

Magic Items(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

A magic item is an artefact or device imbued with magical power. Such items are not common in the Warhammer world and their extraordinary value and arcane nature means that they often take the form of treasured heirlooms belonging to noble houses or powerful magical covens. The kings and lords of the Old World possess many such devices but rightly fear to use them, except in the most dire circumstances.

We have provided a short list of magic items in this book. These are items of a relatively general type, the kind of artefacts which can be made and duplicated by an accomplished artificer of magic. However, most magic items are unique and their nature is strongly bound to the race that manufactured them. You will find many more magic items specific to each race described in the Warhammer Army books.

Wizard Levels(Main Rulebook, p. 134)

No two Wizards in the Warhammer world are identical in power or knowledge, but in the game we divide Wizards into four degrees of ability called Levels.

Level 1: Wizards of the First Level are those of basic ability, although they are mighty practitioners of magic in everyday terms.

Level 2: Wizards of the Second Level are experienced spell casters whose powers are significantly greater than mere First Level Wizards.

Level 3: Wizards of the Third Level are great sorcerers of a kind rarely seen on the battlefield except in times of dire need.

Level 4: Wizards of the Fourth Level are the most mighty of all Wizards, the very equals of kings amongst the realms of sorcery.

The higher a Wizard's Level, the greater his ability to draw magical power from the swirling winds of magic, either for his own use or that of his fellow Wizards.

Each Wizard begins the game with one pre-generated spell for each Magic Level he has. We'll explain how to generate spells later. For now it is sufficient to know that First Level Wizards have one spell, Second Level Wizards have two spells, and so on.

Casting Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 135)

In a player's Magic phase, which follows the Movement phase, each of his Wizards can attempt to cast each of his spells only once. Spell casting is determined by rolling dice, and the number of dice available to roll limits the number of spells that can be attempted. Fleeing or dead Wizards, or those with any type of armour (except a barded steed), cannot attempt to cast spells. Wizards cannot cast spells at units in close combat, unless the spell only affects themselves or otherwise says so in its description.

Power Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 135)

At the start of the Magic phase, the player whose turn it is takes two dice and adds one further dice for each First Level Wizard, two dice for each Second Level Wizard, three dice for each Third Level Wizard, and four dice for each Fourth Level Wizard in his army. Some magic items also add bonus dice. All of these dice are called Power dice. The dice are expended throughout the Magic phase when rolling to cast spells, so it is important that all of the Power dice are placed in a pile directly in front of the player where they can be seen, or alternatively placed into a cup, a box or some other convenient place where they will not get mixed up with other dice used in the game. Alternatively, the players may wish to use different coloured dice to represent Power dice. Fleeing or dead Wizards do not generate Power dice.

LevelNo. of Power Dice
Basic2
Each First Level Wizard+1
Each Second Level Wizard+2
Each Third Level Wizard+3
Each Fourth Level Wizard+4

Dispel Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

At the same time as the player whose turn it is makes a pile of Power dice, his opponent makes a pile of Dispel dice. To do so, be takes two dice (four in the case of a Dwarf army) and adds one further dice for each First or Second Level Wizard, or Dwarf Runesmith or Runelord in his army regardless of Level, and two dice for each Third or Fourth Level Wizard in his army. As with Power dice, magic items can add to the Dispel pile. As with Power dice, the Dispel dice can be placed into a cup, box or some other convenient place where they will not get mixed up with other dice used in the game. The Dispel dice are expended throughout the Magic phase when attempting to dispel spells that have been cast by the opposing player. Fleeing or dead Wizards do not generate Dispel dice.

LevelNo. of Dispel Dice
Basic2
Each First Level Wizard+1
Each Second Level Wizard+1
Each Third Level Wizard+2
Each Fourth Level Wizard+2

Once the players have gathered the appropriate number of dice into their Power dice pile or Dispel dice pile the player whose turn it is can begin to cast spells.

How to Cast a Spell(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

To cast a spell, a Wizard chooses and nominates one of his spells to cast and then declares the target of the spell.

Each spell has an associated casting value which varies from a minimum of 3 to a maximum of 15. When a Wizard attempts to cast a spell, the player can roll a number of dice from his Power dice pile equal to the amount indicated in the table below. So, for example, a First Level Wizard may only roll a maximum of two dice to cast a spell. The result is the total of the dice rolled.

For example, if one dice scores 4 the result is 4, if two dice score 4 and 6 the result is 10, if three dice score 3, 5 and 6 the result is 14.

Level of WizardMaximum Number of Power dice for a single spell
12
23
34
45

If the result equals or exceeds the spell's casting value the spell is successfully cast. If the result is less than the spell's casting value, it is not cast. In either case, all dice rolled are 'expended' and removed from the Power dice pile. As can be appreciated, the chances of casting a spell can be increased by rolling more dice, but doing so will reduce the number remaining and hence the chances of casting further spells.

If a spell is successfully cast, the opposing player can make one attempt to dispel it. He roll as many Dispel dice as he wishes and compares the total of the scores with the score rolled by the caster's Power dice. If the result is equal to or higher than the caster's score, the spell is dispelled - it is not cast and has no effect. As Dispel dice are rolled they are expended, reducing the player's ability to dispel further spells.

Minimum 3 To Cast(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

No matter how powerful a Wizard might be, he cannot cast a spell where the total of the dice result is less than 3. A result of 1 or 2 is always considered a failure, despite any modifiers. This is true regardless of any bonuses that might apply in any form, whether from a magic item or some other source. When rolling to cast a spell, a result of 1 or 2 is always a failure.

Miscasts and Irresistible Force(Main Rulebook, p. 136)

So far we have seen that spells are cast by rolling a result equal to or more than the required casting score. In addition, there are two special rules that apply to all Wizards when they cast spells: these are Miscasts and Irresistible Force.

When rolling to cast a spell, if the player rolls two or more 1s, the spell is a Miscast. The spell automatically fails to cast regardless of the total result. Something goes horribly wrong. Refer to the Miscast table to discover what horrible fate has befallen your Wizard.

When rolling to cast a spell, any result of two or more natural 6s means that the spell has been cast with Irresistible Force. The spell is cast successfully and the enemy cannot attempt to stop it working, as described below. It cannot be resisted!

As some readers will have realised, the chances of rolling a Miscast or Irresistible force is increased by rolling more dice. Such is the nature of magical power! If a spell Miscasts and is cast with Irresistible Force at the same time (eg, from four dice the player rolls two 1s and two 6s) then the spell counts as a Miscast. Miscasts take precedence in this case.

With Miscasts and Irresistible Force it is the actual dice scores that are considered, irrespective of bonuses and before any re-rolls from magic items are taken. A re-roll cannot cause a spell to be cast with Irresistible Force, nor can it prevent a Miscast.

Dispelling a Spell(Main Rulebook, p. 137)

Compared to our mundane world, the Warhammer world is drenched in magic. The very rocks of the planet are soaked with sorcerous power, the trees draw their sustenance from waters steeped in magic, and the air itself is impregnated with raw sorcery. Small wonder then that the creatures which live in the Warhammer world have developed a certain natural immunity to magic - an ability to resist the influence of magic upon their minds and bodies. Were this not the case then all life would have since mutated into abhorrent forms and the world would be overrun with slithering tentacled monstrosities.

To represent this natural ability to resist the influence of magic, we have the Dispel roll. After a player has cast a spell, his opponent can immediately make one attempt to dispel it using any number of his Dispel dice. Some magic items may allow a second attempt, or a re-roll, but these are exceptions and in normal circumstances only one attempt can be made to dispel a spell. You will notice that it does not matter who or what the spell has been cast at, it can always be dispelled.

In addition, the result can be increased further by the use of magic items. Any number of magic items can be combined to boost the score, but the player must declare that he is using any magic items before he makes the Dispel dice roll. It is not permitted to roll the dice and then decide to use a magic item retrospectively. Many of these magic items can only be used once, or a limited number of times, so it is important to be clear about whether you are using them or not before rolling the dice.

To dispel a spell, the player must score the same number or higher than the caster scored to cast the spell. For example, if the caster used four dice and got a result of 20, the dispelling player must score 20 or more on his Dispel dice to dispel the spell.

Double 1 and Double 6(Main Rulebook, p. 138)

Trying to control massive magical energy to dissipate an enemy spell is extremely taxing and difficult, and can easily go wrong. Therefore, just as with casting spells, if two or more of the Dispel dice come up as 1s, the attempt to dispel a spell automatically fails. Regardless of how many bonuses you might have accrued from magic items, etc, a roll of two or more 1s is always a failure. If a player rolls two or more 6s when dispelling a spell, the dispel succeeds automatically. Note that an automatic fail takes precedence over an automatic success when dispelling a spell.

Irresistible Force(Main Rulebook, p. 138)

As we have already noted, if two or more 6s are rolled when casting a spell, the spell is considered to have been cast with (adopt deep booming voice now) Irresistible Force! A spell cast with Irresistible Force is irresistible just like it says ... you cannot dispel the spell and no Dispel roll can be attempted.

Dwarfs(Main Rulebook, p. 138)

Dwarfs are legendarily resistant to magic and a Dwarf army always adds two extra Dispel dice to its pile. A Dwarf army therefore starts with four dice plus one per Runesmith or Runelord in the army.

Miscasts(Main Rulebook, p. 138)

If a player rolls two or more 1s when rolling Power dice to cast a spell, this is a very bad thing. Something has gone terribly wrong with the spell. The Wizard, and by extension the player, is about to find out what kind of terrible consequences occur when foolish creatures dabble in things best left alone. We said that magic is a dark and dangerous power and how telling those words will become as you take 2D6 and roll on the Miscast Table! Note that a Miscast spell never succeeds regardless of the actual number rolled by the Wizard.

The Miscast table given below is a general table which is used for all races that do not have a specific table in their own Warhammer Army book. Some races derive their sorcerous powers from specific, and usually very nasty, gods or daemons, for which specific, and usually very nasty, Miscast tables are provided in the appropriate Warhammer Army books.

Miscast Table(Main Rulebook, p. 138)

Roll 2D6 as your opponent cackles maniacally.

2D6Result
2The collected magical power explodes in a ball of energy. Models in base contact, friend or foe, or the character's mount, if on a monster or chariot, suffer one Strength 10 hit, as does the casting Wizard.
3There is an explosion of dazzling colours and sulphur as the Wizard loses his control of the spell. The caster is blasted D6" in a random direction (use the Artillery dice to determine the direction) and cannot cast further spells until he rolls a 6 on a D6 at the start of his Magic phase. If blasted into another model he stops and both take one Strength 10 hit. If blasted into a wall, wood, or solid object, the caster takes one Strength 10 hit.
4The magical energies escape as the Wizard loses his concentration. The opposing player may immediately cast any one of his own spells of the same casting difficulty racing or less. No casting roll is required - the spell is automatically cast - but it can he dispelled by the player whose turn it is by using Power dice in the same way as Dispel dice. A player needs to beat the basic casting value of the spell to dispel it.
5The caster is knocked off his feet by a sorcerous explosion. He cannot shoot or attack this turn, is hit automatically in close combat and cannot cast any magic this turn or in his next turn, but is otherwise unaffected.
6-7The caster loses control of his spell and struggles to keep the magical energies in check. He cannot cast any more spells in this Magic phase.
8-9A massive vortex of power drains away the sorcerous energy. Any remaining Power dice held by the player are removed and the Magic phase ends.
10The caster is racked by sorcerous power and suffers 1 wound with no saves allowed.
11Ravaged by the power of Chaos the Wizard loses some of his power. The caster's Magic Level is reduced by -1 and he cannot attempt to cast the spell that he has miscast for the rest or the battle. If the caster's Magic Level is reduced to 0 he can cast no further spells for the rest of the battle, but he still counts as a First Level Wizard for the purpose of calculating the number of Dispel dice only.
12The caster's mind is ravaged by the power of a hideous Daemon who's attention the spellcaster has drawn. The spell he attempted to cast is successful and counts as having been cast with Irresistible Force, but the caster cannot cast any more spells for the duration of the battle, and generates no Dispel or Power dice.

Characters and Units as Targets of Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 139)

Note that characters on their own, large monsters, war machines, etc, are classed as units as well, so spells that target units can be cast on these targets. Characters in units cannot be targeted separately unless otherwise noted.

A unit is considered to be the target of a spell if any of the models in the unit are affected by the spell.

Natural Dispels and Magical Defenses(Main Rulebook, p. 139)

Some units have a natural resistance to magic, or they are protected from hostile magic by magical artefacts they possess.

These often add Dispel dice to attempts to counter any spells. These dice may be used on their own as well - for example a unit may carry a magic standard which gives two Dispel dice against any spells which affect the unit. These can either be used on their own against any spell targeted against the unit, or in combination with Dispel dice from Wizards or other sources.

Spells with Templates(Main Rulebook, p. 139)

Certain spells utilise one of the templates provided with the game.

When using templates, any models whose base is completely under the template are considered to be affected by the spell. Models whose bases are not covered by it have been lucky enough to escape.

Fleeing Wizards(Main Rulebook, p. 139)

Fleeing Wizards are not allowed to cast or dispel spells. Fleeing Wizards do not add any dice to the Dispel dice or Power dice pool. Note that Wizards who are rallied before the Magic Phase are allowed to cast spells and can dispel as normal. Dispel dice can even be used if the player has no Wizards.

Spells in Play(Main Rulebook, p. 139)

Most spells are cast instantly and their effect is worked out at once. For instance, the Fire Ball spell is cast, it strikes a target and damage is resolved. In this case, the spell has no further effect in the game during the same Magic phase, and the spell cannot be cast again in that Magic phase.

Some spells last for longer than this and they are said to Remain in Play or Last One Turn. These spells cannot be cast again while they remain in play.

Dispelling Spells in Play(Main Rulebook, p. 139)

After a player has finished casting his spells, his opponent is allowed to dispel any spells that remain in play (unless they were cast in the same Magic phase) if he has any Dispel dice left. Note that he only needs to beat the casting value of the spell in question - be does not have to beat the original casting score. In addition, these spells can be dispelled in the player's own Magic phase using any Power dice not being used to cast spells, as Dispel dice. Follow the same rules as given above. Note that a spell that was originally cast with Irresistible Force can be dispelled as normal in subsequent turns if it remains in play.

Magic Phase Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 139)

1. Cast
The player decides that one of his Wizards is casting a spell. He nominates the target of the spell and decides how many Power dice he wants to use to cast the spell. The number of Power dice he can use is limited by the caster's level.

To cast a spell successfully; the caster must roll equal to or greater than the casting value of the spell. Add the results of the dice together to determine how difficult the spell will be to dispel.

If two or more of the dice come up as 6s, the spell is case with Irresistible Force and cannot be dispelled. If any two or more dice come up as 1s, the spell is Miscast (refer to the Miscast Table).

2. Dispel
The opposing player may attempt to counter the spells using one or more of his Dispel dice. He will have to roll equal to or greater than the score rolled by the casting player. If two or more dice come up as 1s, the dispel automatically fails.

3. Spell Fails or Spell Succeeds
Apply the effect of the spell if it succeeds.

4. Cast Again
Provided that he has more spells to cast and more Power dice remain, the player whose turn it is can cast again.

5. Dispel Any Spells In Play
Once the first player has finished casting his spells, the opposing player may dispel any spells in play if he has any Dispel dice left. The casting player may use any remaining Power dice that he has to try to dispel spells in play.

Spell Lists(Main Rulebook, p. 142)

The Warhammer rulebook describes eight different kinds of magical lore each of which is represented by six spells making a total of 48 individual spells. Each Lore is based upon one of the eight magical traditions of the High Elves whose learning far exceeds that of any ocher race in the Warhammer world. The men of the Empire learned their sorcery from High Elf mages and so use the same system as their basis of study — though their knowledge is by no means as great.

The sorcery of the other races of the Warhammer world is also based upon one or more of the eight kinds of magic but often includes spells unique to a particular race. The Warhammer Army books contain further spell lists for specific armies where appropriate. There are two other types of magic which do not directly concern us here - High magic and Dark magic. These are described in the Warhammer Army books for the High Elves and Dark Elves respectively.

The Eight Lores of Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 142)

The Eight Lores of Magic are listed here by the names that they are referred to in the following pages. These are not the only names by which they are known, by any means, but these terms will serve our purposes perfectly well.

The eight different Lores of magic in Warhammer are: Fire, Metal, Shadow, Beasts, The Heavens, Light, Life, and Death.

Selecting Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 142)

The Warhammer Army books describe exactly which kinds of Lore are used by the different Warhammer races and provide further race specific spells in most cases. Those given here are used primarily by the Wizards of the Empire and by Elves, but form the basis for the magic of other races too.

All Wizards follow one particular kind of magical Lore. Where permitted, an army can include Wizards who follow different Lores or several of the same - this is up to the player.

Wizards have one spell for each Magic Level. Wizards of the First Level have one spell, Wizards of the Second Level have two spells, Third Level Wizards have three spells and Wizards of the Fourth Level have four spells.

The standard procedure for selecting spells is for each player to randomly generate a spell or spells for each of his Wizards before both sides deploy their troops. This is normally done openly and opponents will therefore be aware of which spells their opponent has generated. A Wizard can always substitute one of his spells with the first spell that is on the list. For example, a Level 1 Wizard who chooses to use Fire magic and rolls a 5 (getting the Conflagration of Doom spell) could substitute this spell with the Fire Ball spell.

Players who wish to adopt some other method of selecting their spells, such as choosing spells or secretly generating random spells, are perfectly welcome to come to an arrangement between themselves. The spell lists include random generation charts and players declare before the battle which Lore of Magic each of their Wizards is using before generating any spells.

If both sides are using Wizards, roll a dice to see who generates his spells first. Start generating spells with the highest Level Wizards. If two Wizards in the same army are using the same Lore of Magic, they may gain duplicates of spells, but no single Wizard can have the same spell twice.

Two Wizards on opposing sides may use the same spell lists, thus both sides may have the same spells.

Fire Balls and Other Magic Missiles(Main Rulebook, p. 142)

Many spells are described as magic missiles - for example, Fire Ball. In this case, the Wizard conjures a ball of flame and hurls it at a target. All magical missiles are thrown, hurled, or projected in this fashion.

A magic missile can only be cast at a target if it would be a viable target according to the rules for shooting. For example, the Wizard must be able to see the target, and individuals can only be picked out from surrounding units in the same circumstances as archers, crossbowmen or comparably armed individuals can do so. Unless otherwise noted, magic missiles hit their targets automatically.

A Wizard cannot cast these spells if he is engaged in close combat.

Cancelling Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 142)

It is quite possible for the effect of one spell to contradict the effect of another. For example, a unit which has a spell cast upon it by one Wizard which prevents it from moving might subsequently have a spell cast upon it by another Wizard that obliges it to move. In these cases, the most recent spell automatically dispels the previous spell.

The Lore of Fire(Main Rulebook, p. 144)

Fire magic is practiced in varying degrees of accomplishment by several races of the Warhammer world. In the Empire its secrets are kept by the Wizards of the Bright Flame, or Pyromancers, whose fire-topped towers rise above the city of Altdorf.

All of these spells are considered to be Fire attacks and cause double damage against flammable creatures.

The fire ball is a magic missile with a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, the Fire Ball hits its target and causes D6 Strength 4 hits.

Remains in play. This spell can be cast by the Wizard on himself. It can be cast even if the Wizard is in close combat. Once it has been cast, the spell lasts until the Wizard attempts another spell.

A magical flaming blade materializes in the Wizard's grasp. This counts as a magic weapon. The Wizard gains +1 additional Attack to his profile for the duration of the spell. All the Wizard's attacks will hit on a basic score of 2+ and he adds +3 to his Strength whilst using the Sword of Rhuin. Whilst he has the Flaming Sword, the Wizard must use it as his sole weapon, he cannot combine it with other weapons.

The Fiery Blast is an especially dangerous magic missile - it is an upmarket version of the Fire Ball, being both more powerful and harder to cast. The Fiery Blast has a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, the Fiery Blast hits its target and causes 2D6 Strength 4 hits.

A phantasmic flaming head shoots 18" from the caster in a straight direct path, laughing insanely as it burns a trail of destruction in its way. Each model that lies in the direct path of the Burning Head suffers a Strength 4 hit.

This can be cast on any enemy unit anywhere on the table. If successfully cast, the target bursts into flames taking D6 Strength 4 hits. The target can take further hits depending on how long the fire burns. To represent this both players roll a D6. If the casting player's dice score is lower than or equal to his opponent's, the flames go out and nothing else happens, but if he rolls higher, add the dice roll to the number of hits caused. Both players then roll a further D6 and repeat the process until the casting player rolls equal to or less than his opponent. Once the casting player fails to roll higher, the fire goes out and no further hits are caused.

Remains in play. This spell has a range of 24" and can be cast on an enemy unit visible to the caster which has no models (friend or foe) within 1" of its front rank (walls. hedges and other scenic features don't matter). The spell cannot be cast on units with a 360° line of sight.

A searing wall of flame suddenly rises in front of the unit. To represent this take some cotton wool or paper and place this in a line up to 1" thick in front of the unit.

The unit suffers 1 automatic hit for each model (including characters) in its front rank. Each hit is resolved with a Strength of 4.

Once it is cast, the Wall of Fire remains where it is until it is dispelled, or until the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to cast another spell or is slain. No further hits are caused by the Wall of Fire unless a unit tries to move through it, in which case each model that moves through the Wall of Fire suffers a further Strength 4 hit.

The Wall of Fire does not block the line of sight of archers and chargers, nor does it reduce a unit's Movement rate.

The Lore of Metal(Main Rulebook, p. 145)

In the lands of Men, the Lore of Metal is more commonly known as Alchemy. It is practiced by many races, but few are as devoted to it as Men. If there is truth in common talk then there are many fortunes won by means of alchemical sorcery. The Alchemists of the Golden Order at Altdorf have the Emperor's ear in all matters of state and war – or so it is said by ordinary folk of the town.

Burning Iron is a magic missile with a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, the spell hits a single model (chosen by the caster) and causes 1 S3 hit if the target has no armour save or a save of 6, 1 S4 hit if the target has an armour save of 5+, and 1 S5 hit if the target has an armour save of 4+ or better. This is a Fire attack and causes double damage against flammable targets.

Lasts one turn. This spell has a range of 24" and can be cast on an enemy war machine or chariot which is visible to the caster and which is not already engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, the machine cannot move or shoot until the end of its own following turn. If forced to flee for whatever reason, the spell is broken and the unit flees.

This spell can be cast on an enemy unit that is within 24", and which is engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, the enemy's armour, weapons and other equipment are transmuted to lead for the duration of the ensuing Close Combat phase. The affected unit suffers a -1 to hit penalty in close combat, and armour saves suffer a -1 penalty during that turn's Close Combat phase.

The Distillation of Molten Silver is a magic missile with a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, a squall of molten silver hits the target and causes 2D6 Strength 4 hits. This is a Fire attack and causes double damage against flammable targets.

This spell can be cast on an enemy unit that is within 24" of the caster. The opposing player must nominate one magic item carried by any model in the unit. The caster rolls a D6: on the roll of 1-4 the item cannot be used until the end of enemy's next turn, on a 5 or 6 the item cannot be used for the rest of game. The Law of Gold has no effect on a unit that does not include any models with magic items.

This spell has a range of 12" and can be cast on an enemy unit which is visible to the caster. If successfully cast, the enemy's weapons begin to crumble and rust away. No weapon bonuses or penalties apply to the affected unit for the remainder of the battle. For example, a unit wielding Great Swords will not get their +2 Strength bonus in combat for the rest of the battle, but will now not have to strike last. A unit with missile weapons may not shoot for the duration of the entire battle. Affected units are assumed to use their fist/claws, etc, and so cannot benefit from the rules for using two hand weapons or a hand weapon and shield. War machines and magic weapons cannot be affected by the Bane of Forged Steel - only ordinary weaponry carried by troops.

The Lore of Shadow(Main Rulebook, p. 146)

In the land of the Empire, Wizards of the Shadow call themselves Grey Wizards, as if to distance themselves from the sinister reputation of their sorcery. They are more often called Trickster Wizards by the common folk, who mistrust and fear them. Shadow Lore is the magic of deceit and illusion, of trickery, concealment and darkness.

This spell may be cast upon the Wizard himself or any single friendly independent character model within 12" of him - the spell can only be cast on a model with a Unit Strength of 1 (it won't work on a mounted model or a model riding in a chariot, for example).

If successfully cast, the model can make a normal flight move of up to 20". The model can fly out of close combat if desired, but cannot fly into close combat unless positioned so that it could do so by making a normal aerial charge (for example, it must not be engaged in combat already and must be able to see the target).

The Creeping Death is a magic missile with a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, the Creeping Death hits its targets and causes D6 Strength 3 hits. No armour saves are allowed against wounds caused by the Creeping Death.

Remains in play. This spell can be cast on a friendly unit that is within 24" of the caster. If successfully cast, all subsequent shooting directed at the unit requires a 6 to hit. All weapons which use a Scatter dice to hit will scatter automatically when targeted at the unit.

Once it is cast, the Pelt of Midnight continues to work until it is dispelled, or until the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to cast another spell or is slain.

Remains in play. This spell affects a single friendly unit within 6" of the Wizard which is not engaged in close combat. The unit now causes fear.

Once it is cast, the Shades of Death continues to work until it is dispelled, or until the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to case another spell or is slain.

This spell can be cast on a friendly unit that is within 24", and which is not already engaged in close combat. The unit can immediately make a move of up to 8" in the same way as a normal move made in the Movement phase. The unit can charge an enemy within 8" if opportunity permits, and the same rules apply as for a normal charge made during the Movement phase. The enemy can only respond by holding their ground - the Unseen Lurker conceals the charger's intent until it is too late to respond in any other way.

The Pit of Shades can be cast on any one unengaged enemy unit anywhere on the table. If successfully cast, the ground falls away beneath the unit's feet toppling them to their doom.

Take the 3" template and place it over a single target enemy unit. All models in the target unit completely under the template are automatically hit and those touched by it are hit on a 4+ on a D6. Models hit suffer 1 Strength 3 hit. In addition, the player whose unit is affected rolls a D6: on a score of 1-3 the unit climbs out of the pit (this counts as moving for the purposes of shooting, etc) and moves at half speed next turn, on a score of 4-6 the unit is unaffected. The pit closes up after the unit has clambered out of it.

The Lore of Beasts(Main Rulebook, p. 147)

The Lore of Beasts is the magic of Shamans and animal spirits. It is a sorcery of wild and primitive races, of creatures that shun the cities of Men, and of Men who have turned their backs upon the ways of their own kind.

This spell can be cast on any friendly fleeing unit on the tabtetop. If successful, the unit is rallies immediately.

This spell can be cast on an enemy cavalry unit, swarm, chariot or a single ridden or unridden monster which is within 24" of the caster and which is not engaged in close combat. If successful, the creatures become momentarily wild and uncontrollable.

The affected unit must take an immediate Leadership test. If passed, the unit suffers a -1 Movement penalty during their next Movement phase (-2" if it marches or charges). The Movement of flyers is reduced to 12". If failed, the unit/monster immediately makes a compulsory move of 2D6" directly towards its own side's table edge, but halts if this move brings it into contact with a friendly unit, impassable terrain, or within 1" of any enemy. If the unit moves off the tabletop, it counts as having fled the battle.

Remains in play. This spell can be cast by the Wizard on himself while he is in close combat. He becomes as wild and powerful as a mighty bear. He adds +3 Attacks, +2 Strength, and +1 Toughness to his characteristics. He cannot wield a weapon whilst using this spell.

Once cast, the spell lasts until the end of the next combat engagement which the Wizard takes part in, until it is dispelled, until the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to cast another spell or is slain.

Corvos the Crow's Feast is a magic missile with a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, a flock of crows mobs the spell's target and causes 2D6 Strength 3 hits.

This spell can be cast on any enemy unit of cavalry, a chariot, a ridden monster, a lone monster such as a Great Eagle, or a swarm. The target of the spell must be on the tabletop and must be engaged in close combat.

If successfully cast, any creatures in the unit (but not their riders), will cower and therefore require 6s to hit in that turn's Close Combat phase. If 6s are required anyway, the creatures may not attack.

This spell can be cast on any friendly unit of cavalry, a chariot, a ridden monster, a monster on its own, or a swarm. The target must be within 24" of the caster and must not be engaged in close combat.

If the spell is cast successfully, the unit moves 2D6" towards the nearest enemy that it can see. If no enemy are visible then it will not move. If in doubt as to which enemy unit is nearest, the caster may choose but must do so before rolling the distance. If the distance is sufficient to reach the enemy, the unit is deemed to have charged and all the normal charging rules apply, except that the enemy can only stand their ground - no other charge response is possible due to the speed of the spell.

The Lore of Beasts - Revised(Warhammer Chronicles 2004, p. 93)

From the Warhammer Chronicles 2004, the Revised Lores of Magic are listed as "Trial Rules" but are considered "Unofficial, but Highly Recommended" by the Design Team.

The Lore of Beasts is the magic of Shamans and animal spirits. It is a sorcery of wild and primitive races, of creatures that shun the cities of Men, and of Men who have turned their backs upon the ways of their own kind.

This spell can be cast on any friendly fleeing unit on the tabtetop. If successful, the unit is rallies immediately.

This spell can be cast on an unengaged enemy cavalry unit, swarm, chariot or a single ridden or unridden monster which is within 24" of the caster. If successful, the creature/s become momentarily wild and uncontrollable.

The affected unit must take an immediate Leadership test. If passed, the unit only suffers a -1 Movement penalty during their next Movement phase (-2" if it marches or charges). The Movement of flyers is reduced to 12". If failed, the unit/monster immediately makes a compulsory move of 2D6" directly towards its own side's table edge, but halts if this move brings it into contact with a friendly unit, impassable terrain, or within 1" of any enemy. If the unit moves off the tabletop, it counts as having fled the battle.

Remains in play. This spell can be cast by the Wizard on himself or another roughly man-sized model on foot in the same unit while he is in close combat. The target becomes as wild and powerful as a mighty bear. He adds +3 Attacks, +2 Strength, and +1 Toughness to his characteristics. He cannot wield a weapon whilst using this spell.

Once cast, the spell lasts until it is dispelled, until the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to cast another spell or the affected model is slain.

Corvos the Crow's Feast is a magic missile with a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, a flock of crows mobs the spell's target and causes 2D6 Strength 3 hits.

This spell can be cast on any enemy unit of cavalry, a chariot, a ridden monster, a lone monster such as a Great Eagle, or a swarm. The target of the spell must be on the tabletop and must be engaged in close combat.

If successfully cast, any creatures in the unit (but not their riders), will cower and therefore require 6s to hit in that turn's Close Combat phase. If 6s are required anyway, the creatures may not attack.

This spell can be cast on any friendly unit of cavalry, a chariot, a ridden monster, a monster on its own, or a swarm. The target must be within 24" of the caster and must not be engaged in close combat.

If the spell is cast successfully, the unit moves 2D6" towards the Wizard or an enemy unit that it can see. If no enemy are visible then it will not move. If the distance is sufficient to reach the enemy, the unit is deemed to have charged and all the normal charging rules apply, except that the enemy can only stand their ground - no other charge response is possible due to the speed of the spell.

The Lore of the Heavens(Main Rulebook, p. 148)

In the cities of Men, the Lore of the Heavens is called Astromancy. It is the magic of the sky and stars, of portents, fate and the movement of heavenly bodies.

This spell can be cast by a Wizard and gives the player a chance of re-rolling dice during the remainder of his own turn.

If successfully cast, roll a D3 to determine the number of re-rolls the player can make. Each re-roll entitles the player to take any single D6 dice (including one of the dice rolled on a 2D6, 3D6, etc.) he has rolled and roll it again. Any dice can be re-rolled but the player cannot re-roll a re-rolled dice... he only gets one chance to overcome a duff roll. Any re-rolls not used by the end of the turn are wasted.

This spell can be cast on a friendly unit that is within 12" and which is engaged in close combat.

If successfully cast, all subsequent dice rolls of a 1 made either to hit or to wound by this unit can be re-rolled that turn. Re-rolled scores of 1 stand - you cannot re-roll a re-rolled dice.

This spell can be cast on any enemy unit on the tabletop. If successfully cast, the unit is struck by lightning causing D6 Strength 4 hits. These hits are distributed exactly like hits from shooting.

This spell can be cast on any enemy unit on the tabletop. If successfully cast, the unit is struck by a thunder bolt causing D6 Strength 4 hits with no armour save possible. These hits are distributed exactly like hits from shooting.

This spell can be cast on all enemy units which are visible to and within 12" of the caster. If successfully cast, all enemy units within range and sight are affected. Each unit takes D6 Strength 4 hits, distributed exactly like shooting.

Remains in play. This spell can be cast upon any fixed point on the tabletop. If successfully cast, place a suitable marker over the exact spot affected - a small coin is ideal for this.

Once cast, the player rolls a D6 at the start of each player's turn (ie, at the start of his turn and at the start of his opponent's turn). On a score of 1-3 nothing happens, but place another marker on the first. On the score of a 4-6 the spot is struck by a comet. All units from either side which are within D6" multiplied by the number of markers already placed are struck by the comet. Each unit struck by the comet takes 2D6 Strength 5 hits. For example - if there are two markers in place and the D6 roll is a 4, all units within 4 x 2 = 8" are struck. If the spell is dispelled while in play, all the markers are removed.

The Lore of the Heavens - Revised(Warhammer Chronicles 2004, p. 94)

From the Warhammer Chronicles 2004, the Revised Lores of Magic are listed as "Trial Rules" but are considered "Unofficial, but Highly Recommended" by the Design Team.

In the cities of Men, the Lore of the Heavens is called Astromancy. It is the magic of the sky and stars, of portents, fate and the movement of heavenly bodies.

This spell can be cast by a Wizard and gives the player a chance of re-rolling dice during the remainder of his own turn.

If successfully cast, roll a D3 to determine the number of re-rolls the player can make. Each re-roll entitles the player to take any single D6 dice (including one of the dice rolled on a 2D6, 3D6, etc) he has rolled and roll it again. Any dice can be re-rolled but the player cannot re-roll a re-rolled dice... he only gets one chance to overcome a duff roll! Any re-rolls not used by the end of the turn are wasted.

This spell can be cast on a friendly unit that is within 12" and which is engaged in close combat.

If successfully cast, all subsequent dice rolls of a 1 made either to hit or to wound by this unit can be re-rolled that turn. Re-rolled scores of 1 stand - you cannot re-roll a re-rolled dice.

This spell can be cast on any unengaged enemy unit within 24" of the caster. If successfully cast, the unit is struck by lightning causing D6 Strength 4 hits. These hits are distributed exactly like hits from shooting.

This spell can be cast on any unengaged enemy unit within 24" of the caster. If successfully cast, the unit is struck by a thunder bolt causing D6 Strength 4 hits with no Armour save possible. These hits are distributed exactly like hits from shooting.

This spell can be cast on all enemy units which are visible to and within 12" of the caster. If successfully cast, all enemy units within range and sight are affected. Each unit takes D6 Strength 4 hits, distributed exactly like shooting.

This spell can be cast upon any fixed point on the tabletop. If successfully cast, place a suitable marker over the exact spot affected - a small coin is ideal for this.

Once cast, the player rolls a D6 at the start of each player's turn (ie, at the start of his turn and at the start of his opponent's turn). On a score of 1-3 nothing happens, but place another marker on the first. On the score of a 4-6 the spot is struck by a comet. All units from either side which are within D6" multiplied by the number of markers already placed are struck by the comet. Each unit struck by the comet takes 2D6 Strength 4 hits. For example - if there are two markers in place and the D6 roll is a 4, all units within 4 x 2 = 8" are struck. The Comet is not a remains in play spell as such, although the spell can be dispelled while in play, (remove all markers), and a Wizard cannot have more than one Comet in play at one time.

The Lore of Light(Main Rulebook, p. 149)

The Lore of Light is a magic of bright and radiant power, of the solar wind, and of life giving energy. Wizards who practice this art are sometimes called White Wizards or Hierophants. It is the magic of solar rituals, carefully guarded secrets and ancient ceremonies.

Remains in play. This spell can be cast by the Wizard on himself. Once it has been cast, the spell lasts until the Wizard attempts another spell or until it is dispelled.

The Wizard is swathed in power. Regardless of his characteristics, he has 3 Attacks and Strength 5 while this spell lasts. He cannot wield a weapon whilst using this spell. No magic weapons can be used to attack him whilst the spell lasts. Once cast, the spell lasts for the duration of the combat engagement until it is dispelled, until the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to cast another spell or is slain.

Shem's Burning Gaze is a magic missile with a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, the Burning Gaze hits its targets and causes D6 Strength 4 hits.

Burning Gaze is a flaming attack and so causes double damage on flammable targets, etc.

This spell can be cast on any enemy unit that is engaged in close combat and which is within 18" of the caster. If successfully cast, the target unit is dazzled and its WS characteristic is reduced to 1 for the duration of that turn's Close Combat phase.

This spell can be cast upon the Wizard himself or upon any friendly model anywhere on the tabletop that has already suffered one or more wounds.

If successfully cast, the model regains all its lost Wounds. In the case of a monster and its rider, choose one as the target of the spell. This spell has no effect on Undead models, Chaos Daemons, war machines, chariots or other unliving units.

Remains in play. This spell affects all friendly units that are within 12" of the caster. If successfully cast, all these units are now Immune to Psychology, and fleeing units automatically rally.

Once cast, the spell remains in play until it is dispelled, until the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to cast another spell or is slain.

Lasts one turn. This spell can be cast on an enemy unit which is visible to and within 24" of the caster, and which is not engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, the unit is momentarily blinded and its Movement characteristics is reduced by half (rounding down) and its WS and BS are reduced to 1. This lasts until the end of the unit's following turn.

The Lore of Life(Main Rulebook, p. 150)

The Lore of Life is the magical lore of the growing earth and as such is bound to the changing seasons. Few creatures of any race understand the nature of growing things as do these Wizards. It is a form of magic that exists in all water and vegetation and which is strongest when it is close to places where rivers run and where woods and forests grow most abundantly.

This spell cast be cast upon an enemy unit that is within 12" of a river, stream, bog, or any other water feature on the tabletop which has been identified as such before the game. If there are no such features in range, it can be cast on it enemy unit within 6" of the caster. It cannot be used against a unit that engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, the ground beneath the unit is turned to swamp and the unit moves at half speed until the end if its own following turn. If forced to flee, for whatever reason, the unit flees at half speed. This spell has no effect on flyers or ethereal creatures.

The swamp disappears at the end of the opposing player's Magic phase.

The Father of the Thorn can be cast on an enemy unit within 24" of the caster, which is not engaged in combat and which is visible to the caster. If successfully cast, thorns and briars shoot from the earth entangling limbs and tearing at flesh.

The spell causes 2D6 Strength 3 hits.

The thorns wither and disappear at the end of the Magic phase.

Remains in play. This spell can be cast upon the Wizard himself. If successfully cast, no shooting with Strength 4 or less can be targeted at units within 12" of the Wizard - even if some models in the unit are more than 12" away. The howling wind engulfs the whole unit if any part of it is within 12" of the caster. This doesn't prevent units from firing through or out of the affected area at target beyond. In addition, all enemy units within 12" of the Wizard move at half speed due to the effect of the howling wind. Note that this move penalty only applies when actually within the affected area - enemy treat the entire zone as if it were difficult ground. Once cast, the spell lasts until dispelled, the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to cast another spell or is slain.

This spell can be cast upon an enemy unit that is within 12" of a wood, copse or any other wooded feature on the tabletop which has been identified as such before the game. If there are no such features in range, it can be cast on any enemy unit within 6" of the caster. It cannot be used against a unit that is engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, the unit is battered by the branches of trees if within a wood, or lashed at by roots which erupt from the ground if there is no wood nearby.

This causes D6 Strength 4 hits on the unit, plus a further D6 Strength 4 hits if it is partially or wholly within the wood. This spell does not affect Dryads or Treemen. At the end of the Magic phase the trees are still again or the roots retract back into the earth.

This spell can be cast upon an enemy unit that is within 12" of a hill, rocky outcrop. ruins or any area which has been identified as high ground, rocky or ruinous before the game. If there are no such features in range, it can be cast on any enemy unit within 6" of the caster. It cannot be used against a unit that is engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, shards of stone fly against the unit.

The spell causes D6 Strength 5 hits on the unit, plus a further D6 Strength 5 hits if the unit is partially or wholly within the feature.

This spell can be cast on an enemy unit within 24" and which is visible to the caster. If successfully cast, the target unit is enveloped in rain and gets a soaking.

A soaked unit must roll a 4, 5 or 6 when attempting to shoot because bow strings become damp and useless while ropes stretch and don't work properly. A unit using gunpowder, including cannons, must roll a 6 in order to shoot. Dwarf Flame Cannons and any other shooting weapons powered by steam, blackpowder or flame must also roll a 6. If the roll is failed, the affected unit cannot shoot during that Shooting phase. Once affected a unit stays soaked for rest of game - this is not a magical effect, you are wet! A unit can only be soaked once.

The Lore of Life - Revised(Warhammer Chronicles 2004, p. 95)

From the Warhammer Chronicles 2004, the Revised Lores of Magic are listed as "Trial Rules" but are considered "Unofficial, but Highly Recommended" by the Design Team.

The Lore of Life is the magical lore of the growing earth and as such is bound to the changing seasons. Few creatures of any race understand the nature of growing things as do these Wizards. It is a form of magic that exists in all water and vegetation and which is strongest when it is close to places where rivers run and where woods and forests grow most abundantly.

This spell cast be cast upon an enemy unit that is within 12" of a river, stream, bog, or any other water feature on the tabletop which has been identified as such before the game. If there are no such features on the table, it can be cast on it enemy unit within 12" of the caster. It cannot be used against a unit that engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, the ground beneath the unit is turned to swamp and the unit moves at half speed until the end if its own following turn. If fleeing, for whatever reason, the unit flees at half speed (normally 2D6 halved). This spell has no effect on flyers or ethereal creatures.

The Father of the Thorn can be cast on an unengaged enemy unit within 24" of the caster. If successfully cast, thorns and briars shoot from the earth entangling limbs and tearing at flesh.

The spell causes 2D6 Strength 3 hits.

Remains in play. This spell can be cast upon the Wizard himself. If successfully cast, no shooting with Strength 4 or less can be targeted at units within 12" of the Wizard - even if some models in the unit are more than 12" away. This doesn't prevent units from firing through or out of the affected area at targets beyond. In addition, all enemy units within 12" of the Wizard move at half speed due to the effect of the howling wind. Note that this move penalty only applies when actually within the affected area - enemy treat the entire zone as if it were difficult ground. Once cast, the spell lasts until dispelled, the Wizard chooses to end it (which he can do at any time), attempts to cast another spell or is slain.

This spell can be cast upon an enemy unit that is within 12" of a wood, copse or any other wooded feature on the tabletop which has been identified as such before the game. If there are no such features in range, it can be cast on any enemy unit within 12" of the caster. It cannot be used against a unit that is engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, the unit is battered by the branches of trees if within a wood, or lashed at by roots which erupt from the ground if there is no wood nearby.

This causes D6 Strength 5 hits on the unit, plus a further D6 Strength 5 hits if it is partially or wholly within the wood. This spell does not affect Dryads or Treemen.

This spell can be cast upon an enemy unit that is within 12" of a hill, rocky outcrop. ruins or any area which has been identified as high ground, rocky or ruinous before the game. If there are no such features in range, it can be cast on any enemy unit within 12" of the caster. It cannot be used against a unit that is engaged in close combat. If successfully cast, shards of stone fly against the unit.

The spell causes 2D6 Strength 4 hits on the unit, plus a further D6 Strength 4 hits if the unit is partially or wholly within the feature.

This spell can be cast on an unengaged enemy unit within 30". If successfully cast, the target unit is enveloped in rain and gets a soaking.

A soaked unit suffers a further -1 modifier on its shooting rolls to hit. If the unit does not fire using BS (a cannon, for example), then it may only fire if the player can first roll a 4+ on a D6 each turn.

This is not a remains in play spell as such, but units that have been soaked suffer the effects for the rest of the battle. There is no additional effect for being soaked more than once.

The Lore of Death(Main Rulebook, p. 151)

Though the Lore of Death, or Amethyst magic, is the most feared of sorceries, not all practitioners are evil or ill-intended. It is the magic of the bygone ages and draws its power deeply from the realm of the dead.

This is a magic missile with a range of up to 24". If successfully cast, the spell hits its target and causes D6 Strength 4 hits.

This spell can be cast on a friendly unit that is engaged in close combat and which is within 24" of the caster. If successfully cast then models which fall casualty can fight back, stabbing at their enemy with their last strength.

The spell lasts for the duration of that Turn's Close Combat phase. Fight the combat as normal. Any model in the affected unit which falls casualty during the combat may make one further attack with its basic Strength before it is removed - this is regardless of whether the model has already fought or not. In the case of mounted models, models riding chariots or monsters and so forth, only riders may strike back.

This spell can be cast on an enemy model within 12". If successfully cast, the victim's soul is torn and rendered by dark forces and sacrificed to the caster himself.

The enemy model loses 1 Wound. No armour save is allowed. In addition, the casting Wizard gains 1 Wound for the duration of the battle. This spell can be used to increase the caster's Wounds characteristic beyond its normal maximum level, and can be used several times to increase the caster's Wounds even further. At the end of the battle, any stolen Wounds are lost - if the Wizard has no Wounds left once stolen Wounds are removed, he is slain.

The spell cannot affect Undead, Chaos Daemons, and similar units which don't have a soul!

This is a magic missile with range of up to 24". If successfully cast, the spell hits its target and causes 2D6 Strength 4 hits.

If cast successfully each enemy unit within 12" of the Wizard is affected.

Each unit takes D6 Strength 3 hits. No armour saves are allowed against a Drain Life spell. These hits are distributed exactly like hits from shooting.

The spell cannot affect Undead, Chaos Daemons, or buildings and similar models, as they are not truly alive.

Lasts one turn+. This spell can be cast upon an enemy unit which is within 24" of and visible to the caster. If successfully cast, the unit is enshrouded by a black cloud of despair.

For the duration of the turn the affected unit will suffer a -3 penalty to any Leadership test (including Break tests) it is required to take. At the start of its following turn, the unit must take and pass a Leadership test (at -3), otherwise it remains affected for the duration of that turn as well. At the end of the affected unit's following turn, the spell ceases to have any effect.

The spell cannot affect Undead targets, Chaos Daemons or Unbreakable units. Units, immune to psychology are not affected either.

Magic Items(Main Rulebook, p. 152)

Magic items form an important part of the Warhammer game. The Warhammer Armies books describe in detail the many different kinds of magic items which each army can use. Here we shall examine the magic items that are commonly used by all races. In cases of contradiction, the special rule of a magic item takes precedence over normal game rules.

Who Can Use Magic Items?(Main Rulebook, p. 152)

Magic items can be carried by characters and, in some cases, by the Standard Bearer of a unit of troops. This is indicated in the army list for each army in the appropriate Warhammer Army book. A character can only have one magic item, of each type (weapon, armour, etc) unless otherwise indicated.

No specific magic item can be carried by more than one model in the army, with the exception of scrolls. These are not limited in this respect and several scrolls of the same type can be carried by the same character if you wish.

Types of Magic Item(Main Rulebook, p. 152)

For the sake of convenience, we distinguish between the types of magic item in the following ways.

Magic Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 152)

By which we mean most commonly swords but also in some cases, axes, maces, spears, bows, crossbows, etc.

A character who has a magic close combat weapon cannot use other close combat weapons - he cannot have a magic sword in one hand and an ordinary sword in the other. For example, you can carry a shield with a magical weapon. No character can carry more than one magic weapon. Magic weapons always ignore any special rules that apply to an ordinary weapon of the same type. All the rules that apply are covered in the description of the weapon.

Magic Armour(Main Rulebook, p. 152)

A character who is not allowed to wear ordinary armour cannot be given magic armour. This includes many kinds of Wizard whose natural magical harmony would be seriously affected by armour. Therefore, Wizards cannot wear magic armour unless specifically mentioned in the description of the item.

If a character wears magical armour, he cannot also wear ordinary armour and, needless to say, he can only wear one set of armour. Magical shields are also counted as magical armour, so you cannot have a suit of magical armour and carry a magical shield unless specifically stared in the description of the magic item.

If a model has a magic shield he is allowed to wear a suit of normal armour. If the model is wearing a suit of magic armour he is allowed to carry a normal shield.

Arcane Items(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Arcane items are items which enhance a Wizard's magical powers in some fashion. Only a Wizard can carry an Arcane item and no character can carry more than one.

Scrolls are a type of Arcane item which contain powerful enchantments that enable Wizards to manipulate the power of magic. They are useful aids to spell casting and to resisting an enemy's spell. Only a Wizard can carry a scroll but, unlike other Arcane items, there is no limit on the number of scrolls a Wizard can carry, other than the total value of magic items he is permitted. Wizards can have one Arcane item as well as carry several scrolls.

As they are expendable items once a scroll is read, it crumbles to dust or its writing fades to nothing. A scroll can therefore only be used once during a whole battle.

Talismans(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Talismans, charms, amulets and wards are tokens of magical protection. A character cannot have more than one talisman.

Banners(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Magical banners can only be carried by Standard Bearers as indicated in the army lists in the Warhammer Army book for each army. The only character permitted to carry a magic standard is the army's Battle Standard Bearer, and he can carry only one magical banner.

Enchanted Items(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Many magic items are unique or belong to limited categories, such as rings. These items are Enchanted items. No general restrictions apply to these, though particular restrictions may apply to individual items. A character cannot have more than one Enchanted item.

Magic Items Capable of Casting Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 153)

Some magic items have spells that are wrought into their very fabric that can be unleashed by their wielder during the Magic phase. Possessing a Bound Spell item does not make a character a Wizard for the purposes of the rules.

The spell held in a magic item is cast in the player's Magic phase just like other spells, and can be countered in the same way as ordinary spells. Spells case by magic items succeed automatically - no Power dice are needed.

A spell from a Bound Spell item can be cast once per Magic phase. A character cannot have more than one Bound Spell item. Each Bound Spell item has a Power level included in its description. An opponent must score equal to or greater man this to dispel the spell.

Common Magic Items(Main Rulebook, p. 154)

The following magic items are considered to be common items - which is to say that they are common to all armies in the Warhammer world and not that they are commonplace in any sense. Far from it, even the least potent magic item is a dangerous device, steeped in the fickle powers of sorcery, and is extremely rare. Complete lists of magic items available to each of the different armies are included in the Warhammer Army book for each race.

Magic Weapons

+1 To Hit. A Sword of Striking is possessed of a keen intelligence that guides its blade to the target. The sword confers a dice bonus of +1 to the character wielding it. For example, where 3 is normally required to score a hit, the character will hit on a 2. However, a dice roll of 1 is always a miss regardless of bonuses - the minimum successful roll to hit is therefore 2.

+1 Attack. A Sword of Battle is forged with potent magic that enables its wielder to employ it with dazzling speed and deadly effect. The blade confers +1 Attack on the character wielding it.

+1 Strength. A Sword of Might is wrought with enchantments that bind within its fabric a great and magical strength. The blade confers +1 Strength upon the character who fights with it.

-1 Armour Save. The Biting Blade is forged with bitter curses that work against the armour of its foes. The blade confers an additional -1 armour save modifier on any blows stuck. This is in addition to any normal armour save modifier for Strength, so a blow struck at Strength 3 or less will have a -1 armour save. a Strength 4 hit has a -2 armour save, Strength 5 has a -3 armour save and so on.

Magic Armour

5+ Armour Save. The Enchanted Shield protects its user with powerful magic. The shield confers an armour save of 5+ rather than a mundane shield's armour save of 6+. This can be combined with other magical or mundane armour - for example, light armour + Enchanted Shield = armour save 4+, heavy armour + Enchanted Shield + mounted = armour save 2+.

Talismans

6+ Ward Save. The Talisman of Protection is a protective charm. This confers upon its wearer a Ward save of 6+.

Arcane Items

+1 To Dispel. A Wizard who has this benefits from the arcane power stored within it. Whenever he dispels a spell, the score required to make a successful dispel is reduced by 1.

A Dispel Scroll is inscribed with a powerful anti-magical invocation. When it is read out by a Wizard, the effect is to drain away magical power and weaken a spell that has been cast. As soon as a spell has been cast, any Wizard who has a Dispel Scroll can read it. This automatically dispels the cast spell, no dice roll is required.

Reading a Dispel Scroll will bring any spell cast by the Wizard reading it to an end. To put it another way, a Wizard who has a spell in play will automatically cancel it by reading a Dispel Scroll.

As with all scrolls, Dispel Scrolls are not unique items - they are prepared by a Wizard prior to battle and it is quite possible for several Wizards to carry Dispel Scrolls, and for a Wizard to carry more than one. However, only one can be used at a time.

Note that a Dispel Scroll will not help if the spell has been cast with Irresistible Force. Any spell that is successfully cast with two or more 6s is Irresistible and no Dispel roll is permitted.

The Power Stone is imbued with a powerful magical invocation. When it is held out by a Wizard before he casts a spell, the effect is to enhance the efficacy of the magic. A further two dice are added to the Casting roll. Note that using a Power Stone will allow a Wizard to use more Power dice than he is normally permitted. For example, a First Level Wizard may read a Power Stone and thus use four Power dice to cast a spell (2 basic + 2 from a Power Stone). A Power Stone can only be used once - after one use its power is exhausted.

Using a Power Stone will bring any spell in play cast earlier by that Wizard to an end in the same way as casting a new spell by ordinary means.

As with scrolls, Power Stones are not unique items - they are prepared by a Wizard prior to battle and it is quite possible for several Wizards to carry Power Stones, and for a Wizard to carry more than one. However, only one Power Stone can be used to enhance a spell.

Note that a spell cast with a Power Stone can never be cast with Irresistible Force, though it can be Miscast.

Magic Standards

+1 Combat Resolution. The War Banner carries powerful enchantments that fill all those who fight beneath it with heroic courage and determination. A unit, which has a War Banner adds a further +1. to its combat resolution when working out which side has won the combat.

Scenarios(Main Rulebook, p. 196)

This section includes some of the many different types of battles that you can fight out using the Warhammer rules.

What is a Scenario?(Main Rulebook, p. 196)

Imagine you are watching a game of Warhammer as a spectator. Two players line up their armies opposite each other across the wargames table. Then they begin the battle, playing turn by turn until one army has mostly fled or been wiped out. The army with the most troops left is deemed to be the winner. You are observing the game in its simple and typical form. This is in fact, a 'pitched battle' in which both sides have approached the battlefield head on, made camp for the night and formed up their battle lines at dawn, steadily marching in battle array towards each other until they clash. The only strategy in the minds of the Generals is to smash the opposing army in a frontal attack. In reality, this only represents one sort of scenario. There are many others.

In the course of a war or a campaign, many battles will not be 'pitched battles' since a General will try to outwit his opponent in strategy, by leading bis army by devious routes or luring him into a trap, for example. This will more often than not lead to one of many possible battle scenarios such as an ambush, flank attack, encirclement or even a siege.

Nor is it likely that the armies would always be equally matched in numbers or fighting strength when they encounter each other.

In this section, various battle scenarios are described. These have been gleaned from the diverse annals and legends of the known world. Each scenario, as the name suggests, sets the scene of a particular battle. These encounters occurred during the course of wars and campaigns which had an influence on the time, the place and the circumstances in which the battle was fought as well as the forces involved. The commanders tried to outmanoeuvre each other with their entire armies during the marches which led up to the final encounters. Some succeeded in bringing their opponent to battle at a disadvantage. Others recklessly or despite every effort, found themselves fighting against the odds. For each side the challenge was that of a real battle: Can we fight our way out of this? Will our strength of numbers and tactical advantages win the day? Can we snatch victory from the jaws of defeat? Or if all seems lost: Can we at lease the heroically and win a place in legend?

Different scenarios require the players to re-examine their army choices and tactics, and ensure that ever; game is always different to the last. A player might choose an army which they feel confident can beat any foe in a Pitched Battle, but how would they fare if faced with fighting a Last Stand? It is this variety which constantly tests the generalship of the players, and every battle tells a different story and adds to the history of your army.

Choosing a Scenario(Main Rulebook, p. 196)

On this section are nine different scenarios, ranging in complexity. For your first few games. We recommend you just play the Pitched Battle scenario until you are confident with most of the Warhammer rules - there's quite a lot to learn without adding extra rules for a scenario!

Once you've got to grips with the basic Warhammer rules you might like to try out some of the other scenarios. The scenarios are presented in order of increasing complexity, so you might like to try scenarios 2 and 3 next.

Scenarios 1 through 5 all use an equal points value, so if you and your opponent have already agreed on the size of the battle to be played, you won't have to decide which scenario to play until you meet up. If you wish. you could randomly generate which of the scenarios you are playing after you have picked your armies - neither player knows exactly what they'll have to do and will need a balanced force to cover every eventuality. To randomly generate one of these scenarios, roll a dice and consult the following table:

D6

Scenario

1-2

Pitched Battle

3

Breakthrough

4

Meeting Engagement

5

Flank Attack

6

Capture

The other battles use uneven points values or have additional restrictions on what to take in your armies and you will need to agree with your opponent beforehand which of these you want to play, as this will affect the size and/or type of army you can choose.

Creating Your Own Scenarios(Main Rulebook, p. 197)

Making up a scenario to fight isn't as difficult as it might seem at first. Inspiration can come from many places, including military history, films, books or comics. If you follow the same format we have used for our scenarios, filling in the blanks as it were, you'll see that coming up with a little bit of history, deployment rules and victory conditions isn't hard. In fact, some players just play scenarios they've invented themselves, because they know best what armies and terrain they and their opponents have.

The scenarios all follow the same format:

Background

This part gives an example from the Warhammer world of the type of battle the scenario outlines.

Overview

Provides a summary of what the armies are trying to achieve.

Armies

Details the size and composition of the armies that take part in the scenario. Any restrictions in this section are in addition to the normal rules for choosing an army, unless otherwise stated.

Battlefield

A map accompanies this short description of the battlefield, along with any special terrain rules used for the scenario.

Deployment

This details where and in what order armies are set up.

Who Goes First?

Have a guess! Yes, this tells you how to determine which player gets the first turn.

Length of Game

Here you'll find out how long the battle lasts.

Special Rules

Any additional rules particular to the scenario will be found in this section.

Victory Conditions

This is where you can find out how to be victorious!

Historical Re-fight

Includes any notes about re-fighting the battle presented in the Background section.

Victory Points(Main Rulebook, p. 198)

Many of the scenarios use Victory points to determine who has won the battle. Victory points (sometimes shortened to VPs) are a way of measuring how much damage has been clone to the enemy army, as well as other factors such as a better tactical position and morale-boosting endeavours like capturing enemy banners. A player scores Victory points as shown in the Victory Points Chart. Compare the difference between the players' scores and size of the battle on the second chart to determine the result.

You receive a number of Victory points equal to the points value of each enemy unit either destroyed, fleeing or having fled the table.

For example, a unit worth 400 points is worth 400 Victory points.

Each independent character is counted as a separate unit for this purpose, and characters mounted on monsters are also counted separately from their mount.

Eg, a Hero on a Dragon is slain, but the Dragon is still alive, score Victory points for the Hero only.

You also receive Victory points for each enemy unit reduced to below half its original starting number of models, and Independent models (characters, chariots and monsters) reduced to below half their starting number of wounds.

Do not count this if Victory points have already been scored for the unit being wiped out, as detailed above. Score Victory points equal to half the unit's points value (round up).

Eg, a unit worth 325 points is worth 163 Victory points if reduced to below half strength.

Divide the table into four quarters. Each table quarter that contains at least one of your units with a Unit Strength of 5 or more that is not fleeing, and no enemy units which are not fleeing - 100 Victory points.

Enemy General slain, fleeing or having fled the table - 100 Victory points in addition to Victory points scored for being a destroyed unit.

Each enemy unit Standard captured at the end of the battle - 100 Victory points.

Enemy Battle Standard captured at the end of the battle 100 VPs.

Victory Points Chart(Main Rulebook, p. 198)

Victory Points Difference by Size of Battle (Points)

1-1,9992,000-2,9993,000-3,9994,000-4,9995,000-5,9996,000+
0-149DDDDDD
150-299MVDDDDD
300-449SVMVDDDD
450-599SVMVMVDDD
600-749MSVMVMVDD
750-899MSVMVMVMVD
900-1,199MSVSVMVMVD
1,200-1,499MMSVMVMVMV
1,500-1,799MMSVSVMVMV
1,800-2,099MMMSVSVMV
2,100-2,499MMMMSVSV
2,500+MMMMMM

D = Draw. Neither side holds the upper hand.
MV = Minor victory. You have won the battle, but only just!
SV = Solid victory. You have decisively defeated the foe. History will remember your endeavours today.
M = Massacre! You have ruthlessly crushed your foes and are a hero of your people!

Pitched Battle(Main Rulebook, p. 199)

Battle of Nebelheim

This battle is often held up as an example of a true pitched battle, by scholars of the Empire.

In this battle the army of the Empire, led by Konrad, Elector count of Ostland, engaged a large horde of Orcs, led by Warlord Gorkfang. Knowing that the Orcs would press on regardless of losses and seek to overwhelm the Empire army by force of numbers alone, Konrad chose his ground carefully and devised a cunning plan. Then he deployed his army in the path of the invading Orc horde, forming up his carefully considered battle line in open, rolling terrain that formed a natural arena for the battle. Konrad then deliberately positioned thin lines of missile troops in the centre and big blocks of solid troops on the flanks.

The Orcs approached and seeing the apparently thin and weak centre, went into a headlong and ill-considered advance. Of course Konrad's centre gave way and the Orcs surged onward oblivious to the approaching doom. It was now time for Konrad, relying on the immense discipline of his men, to close the trap. The massive and resistant Empire formations on both flanks, swung inwards and hammered the Orc army from both sides. It is said that the Orcs were jammed together so closely in the melee that they were unable to use their weapons and so fell readily and in great heaps to the massed halberds of the Ostlanders. Gorkfang, himself fell, and his horde was annihilated. It was a famous victory.

Overview

Both armies are fully prepared for battle and their goal is simple - wipe out their enemy and take the field!

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer army lists to an agreed points value.

Battlefield

Lay out the terrain in any mutually agreeable manner.

Deployment

  1. Both players roll a dice, the player who scores highest can choose the side of the table to deploy his forces on.

  2. The players roll a dice, the highest scorer may choose whether to start deploying first or second.

  3. Taking it in turns, each player deploys one unit at a time, at least 24" from the opposing deployment zone.

  4. All war machines in a player's army are deployed at the same time, though they can be deployed in different parts of the battlefield.

  5. Champions are deployed with their unit, all other characters in the army are deployed after all other units, all at the same time.

  6. Scouting units are not deployed with the rest of the units. Instead they are placed on the table after all units in both armies have been deployed, as described in the rules for Scouts.

Who Goes First?

Both players roll a dice, the player who finished their deployment first (not including Scouts) may add +1 to their dice roll. The player who scores highest may choose whether to go first or second (re-roll ties).

Length of Game

The game lasts six turns or until one player concedes defeat.

Special Rules

There are no special rules in this scenario.

Victory Conditions

Unless one player concedes, use the Victory Points chart to determine who the winner of the battle is.

Historical Re-fight

To re-fight the Battle of Nebelbeim, simply use the Pitched Battle scenario as described. Of course, the Empire player cannot rely on his opponent being as reckless as Gorkfang, although he can try to be as cunning as Konrad. The battlefield is best represented by an open plain in the centre with perhaps low hills on the flanks to partially conceal either end of the Empire deployment zone from the approaching enemy.

Breakthrough(Main Rulebook, p. 201)

The Battle of the Necropolis, Imperial Year 2480

Count Schuvaltz, one of the border princes, heard tale of the fabled Land of the Dead which lay across the sea to the south. Most interesting to him was the rumour of great treasures heaped up in the ancient tombs, just waiting to be taken. The Count was badly in need of funds to raise an army and fortify his castle, so he decided to send a small expedition to seek and bring back treasure from the necropolis of Zandri, the pyramids of which were spied by one of his ship's captains, whilst he sailed along the desert coast.

The force which the Count sent was fairly small and is likely to have included mercenaries. Only one survivor returned to tell the tale. They had indeed found tombs, full of golden artefacts, but their desecration had awakened the long dead dwellers of the necropolis. The expedition was attacked by overwhelming forces of skeleton soldiers led by their mummified king, and wiped out. Their bones remained among the sands to slowly bleach in the sun.

Overview

In this scenario the attackers must sweep aside their opponents to break through to their objective.

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer army lists to an agreed points value. The players have to decide which army will be the attackers and which will be the defenders.

Battlefield

Much of the battlefield is littered with scattered walls (linear obstacles), and the odd ruin or dune (difficult terrain). This serves to reduce some of the lines of advance available to the attacker.

Deployment

  1. Both players roll a dice, the player who scores highest may choose which side of the table to deploy on.

  2. The players roll a dice, the highest scorer may choose whether to start deploying first or second.

  3. Taking it in turns, each player deploys one unit at a time, no closer than 24" to the enemy and 12" from the neutral table edges.

  4. All war machines are deployed at the same time, though they can be deployed in different parts of the battlefield.

  5. Champions are deployed with their unit, all other characters are deployed after all other units, each player deploying their characters all at the same time.

  6. Scouting units are not deployed with the rest of the units. Instead they are placed on the table after all units in both armies have been deployed, as described in the rules for Scouts.

Who Goes First?

Both players roll a dice, the player who finished their deployment first may add +1 to their dice roll. The player who scores highest may choose whether to go first or second (re-roll ties).

Length of Game

The game lasts six turns.

Special Rules

There are no special rules in this scenario.

Victory Conditions

At the end of the battle, each attacking unit in the defender's deployment zone is worth its points value in Victory points. Units that are fleeing, monsters and characters do not count cowards this total. No other Victory points are used. The attacker wins if they can score a number of Victory points equal to a third or more of their starting points value (rounding fractions down). For example, a 1,500 points attacking force must have 500 points or more of units in the defender's deployment zone to win.

Historical Re-fight

The Battle of the Necropolis took place between an attacking Empire force and a Tomb Kings of Khemri army. To represent the soft, shifting sands of the desert, any war machine that tries to move must first roll a 5 or 6 on a D6 or can do nothing that turn.

In addition, attacking troops wearing heavy armour (including Knights) roll 1D6 less than normal for Flee and Pursuit rolls to represent their exhaustion under the blazing sun. In the defenders' deployment zone is the treasure-filled tomb of Prince Anera-kotrak, the objective of the Empire army.

Meeting Engagement(Main Rulebook, p. 203)

The Battle of Swartzhafen, Imperial Year 2050

During the period of the three Emperors the Empire was riven by civil war as rival claimants to the throne fought against each other. At this time Sylvania was in the grip of the Vampire Count Vlad von Carstein, who sought to exploit the situation and make his own bid for power.

As Vlad set his Undead host marching from Sylvania, the Elector Count of Middenheim was preparing to attack the province. The two armies surprised each other, clashing a few miles inside the borders of Sylvania. Even though the Middenheim army was engaging the Undead on very unfavourable ground, among ruins, cairns and the dark forest, the Middenheimers responded more rapidly, fought hard and won the day. Vlad himself was smashed down in battle by the Knights of the White Wolf and disappeared for a year before re-emerging from Sylvania at the head of another Undead army.

Overview

In this scenario both armies must deploy from a column of march and engage the enemy.

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer Army lists to an agreed points value.

Battlefield

A Meeting Engagement can take place over any terrain you like.

Deployment

  1. Before the battle the players must write an Order of March, to show where in their column each unit is. All war machines are included as a single unit for these purposes, as are all the characters in the army. Characters are always deployed last.

  2. The players roll a dice each, highest scorer is allowed to choose a table edge.

  3. Each player rolls a dice and the highest scoring player may decide whether to begin deploying first or second.

  4. The players take it in turns to deploy their units, starting with the one at the top of their Order of March and working down. The second and subsequent units must be deployed closer to the neutral table edges than any unit already in play - in effect the army deploys outwards from the first unit.

  5. All war machines are written as a single entry on the Order of March, though they can be deployed anywhere on the battlefield within the normal deployment zone.

  6. Champions are deployed with their unit. All other characters are deployed after all other units in the army, each player deploying their characters all at the same time. Characters may start the battle within units.

  7. Units must be deployed at least 6" from the neutral table edges and 36" from the enemy table edge.

  8. Scouting units must be deployed in the same way as other units, except they may be deployed up to 18" from the enemy (they don't have enough time to work their way as far forward as normal).

Who Goes First?

Both players roll a dice, the player who finished their deployment first may add +1 to their dice roll. The player who scores highest may choose whether to go first or second (re-roll ties).

Length of Game

The game lasts six turns.

Special Rules

There are no special rules in this scenario.

Victory Conditions

At the end of the game, players calculate Victory points using the Victory Points table.

Historical Re-fight

To re-fight the historical scenario you would choose armies from the Vampire Counts and Empire army lists. The Empire army must include at least one unit of White Wolves and the Vampire Counts army is led by Vlad von Carstein. If Vlad is slain or flees from the table, the Empire win a decisive victory at the end of the turn. Knights of the White Wolf are immune to fear to represent their historic determination and valour on the day.

Flank Attack(Main Rulebook, p. 206)

The Battle of the Burned Banner, Imperial Year 1214

The High Elf stronghold of Tol Ista, a treaty port on the west coast of Estalia was besieged by a large warband of marauding Orcs and Goblins. These were the remnants of tribes driven out of Bretonnia and which had taken refuge in the rugged mountains of Estalia, led by Bruza da Big. A desperate attempt to sally out was repulsed and the Orcs captured the Elven banner. The surviving Elves fled back within the walls and were so greatly outnumbered that they prepared to abandon the port and sail away across the sea where the Orcs could not follow. At that moment a message was received from a carrier hawk. This said that an Elven force, led by Prince Ethwar was on its way to relieve the stronghold and was only one day's march away. The besieged Elves sent back the hawk with another message telling Ethwar that they would hold out for one more day and then abandon the stronghold.

Ethwar pressed on to reach the stronghold, knowing that if he failed to break through the Orcs and Goblins, the garrison would have no option but to abandon it and save the ships and whatever else they could. Carrying aloft the Elf banner, which he had set alight as a burning beacon for his troops to follow, Bruza deployed his army on rising ground behind a stream so as to block the Elven advance, the flanks of the greenskin's position being protected by boggy ground. On the highest point he planted the Elven banner where it could be seen by the besieged and the relieving force as a taunt to Elven pride. Thus the engagement became known as the Battle of the Burned Banner.

The Orcs and Goblins began shooting at the advancing Elves as they struggled to form up a battle line. Ethwar's force was mainly cavalry and being sorely pressed for time, as well as enraged at the sight of the burned banner, recklessly charged the strongly held Orc and Goblin positions. Despite a timely attack along the Orcs' flank by the garrison of Tor Ista, the difficult approaches and massed formations of the Orcs and Goblins took a heavy toll on the Elves until the Elven army eventually recoiled and fled in confusion. As the sun set in the west, the last Elves of Tol Ista put to sea under cover of night and abandoned the stronghold, which was sacked by Bruza da Big the next day.

Overview

In this scenario the attacking force is divided between two armies, each attacking from a different direction. If they coordinate their attack well the defender will be overwhelmed, if they attack piecemeal they will be destroyed one army ar a time.

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer Army lists to an agreed points value. The players need to decide who is attacking and who is defending.

Battlefield

The defender's deployment zone is centred on an important defensible feature such as a hill or village. Other than this the players should set up the terrain in any mutually agreeable fashion.

Deployment

  1. Before any deployment, the attacker assigns up to one third of their army (in points) to be the flanking force. Units cannot be split between the two forces. The attacker must also write down whether these are flanking to the left or the right.

  2. The players roll a dice each, highest scorer is allowed to choose a table edge.

  3. Each player rolls a dice and the highest scorer may decide whether to begin deploying first or second.

  4. Taking it in turns, each player deploys one unit at a time, no closer than 24" to the enemy deployment zone. Units can be no closer than 12" to the neutral table edges.

  5. All war machines in a player's army are deployed at the same time, though they can be deployed in different parts of the battlefield.

  6. Champions are deployed with their unit, all other characters are deployed after all other units in a player's army, all at the same time.

  7. Scouting units are not deployed with the rest of the units. Instead they are placed on the table after all units in both armies have been deployed, as described in the rules for Scouts.

Who Goes First?

Both players roll a dice, the player who finished their deployment first may add +1 to their dice roll. The player who scores highest may choose whether to go first or second (re-roll ties).

Length of Game

The game lasts six turns.

Special Rules

At the start of the attacker's third turn, they start to roll to see if the flanking force has arrived. On a roll of a 4+ the flanking force turns up. If it does not turn up, roll again at the start of subsequent turns, adding +1 to the dice roll for each roll after the first (they turn up on a 3+ on the fourth turn, and so on).

The units in the flanking force move on from the table edge nominated before the battle, in the opponent's half of the table. Units may not charge on the same turn that they move onto the table, but do not count as starting their move within 8" of the enemy and so may march. You do not have to move all units on at the same time, units that are left off the table can move on in subsequent Movement phases.

Victory Conditions

The standard Victory points are used to determine the winner.

Historical Re-fight

The Battle of the Burned Banner took place between a High Elf host and an Orc and Goblin horde. A burned banner is placed in the middle of the defender's deployment zone, on a hill. Any attacking unit within 18" of the banner hates the enemy. At least half the units in the High Elf force must be cavalry and the General must stay with the main force.

Capture(Main Rulebook, p. 207)

The Battle of Bogwurst, Imperial Year 1485

Baron Rikhardt succeeded to the Lordship of the Marches of Couronne by dubious and devious means. It was not long before his arch-rival, Count Henry, gathering an army in the Empire, invaded the Marches to oust him from power by force. Henry had secretly plotted with the disaffected Baron Lestanne and was counting on him either refusing to support Rikhardt or joining forces with Henry against him. When Henry's army invaded, Rikhardt gathered his own army and went forth to give battle commanding Lestanne to bring his contingent in support of his Lord. Lestanne took his time and turned up on the flank of the two opposing armies as they drew up their battle lines across a long ridge of dry ground surrounded by bogs. This ridge formed the main highway from the Empire through the marshes into Bretonnia. Neither of the two opposing Lords knew for sure who Lestanne would support. Maybe he would wait and see who prevailed or remain neutral throughout the battle?

Efforts by both sides to prompt Lestanne to show his hand before battle commenced were rebuffed. Exasperated, Baron Rikhardt advanced his army along the ridge and engaged Count Henry's army. The battle raged indecisively until late in the day When Henry's army managed to advance on a commanding promontory at the height of the ridge, Lestanne decided to commit his forces, joining Count Henry's side. Lestanne advanced to engage Baron Rikhardt's army in the flank. Overwhelmed by force of numbers, Baron Rikhardt's army crumbled. Baron Rikhardt himself was cornered among the bogs and slain while trying to mount up on his warhorse and escape. Count Henry took over the Marches lordship. He rewarded Lestanne, but could never really trust him.

Overview

In this scenario two forces are attempting to seize control of an important point on the battlefield. The generals do not know how soon they must capture the objective or how long they have to hold on to it, and so must commit themselves fully to the attack from the start.

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer Army lists to an agreed points value.

Battlefield

The objective is placed in the middle of the battlefield. This could be a treasure-filled tomb, a keep, village, hill, or anything else you think appropriate to fight over.

Deployment

  1. Both players roll a dice, the player who scores highest may choose which side of the table to deploy on.

  2. The players roll a dice, the highest scorer may choose whether to start deploying first or second.

  3. Taking it in turns, each player deploys one unit at a time, at least 18" from the opposing deployment zone.

  4. All war machines in a player's army are deployed at the same time, though they can be deployed in different parts of the battlefield.

  5. Champions are deployed with their unit, all other characters in the army are deployed after all other units, all at the same time. Characters may start the battle with units if you wish.

  6. Scouting units are not deployed with the rest of the units. Instead they are placed on the table after all units in both armies have been deployed, as described in the rules for Scouts.

Who Goes First?

Both players roll a dice, the player who finished their deployment first may add +1 to their dice roll. The player who scores highest may choose whether to go first or second (re-roll ties).

Length of Game

The game lasts for a random length. At the end of the fourth turn roll a dice. On a 2 or more, play a fifth turn. At the end of the fifth turn roll a dice again, on a 3 or more play a sixth turn, etc.

Special Rules

There are no additional special rules.

Victory Conditions

The army with the unit closest to the objective at the end of the battle wins. Fleeing units, monsters and characters can't capture the objective. If both players have a unit equidistant from the objective, one player wins if their unit is worth more than double the points value of the closest enemy unit to the objective. Otherwise it is a draw.

Historical Re-fight

This took place between an Empire army and a Bretonnian force. You will also need Lestanne's force, which is equal to one third of the points value of one of the player's armies, chosen from the Bretonnian army list. At the end of the battle, Lestanne's force joins the winner (in the case of a draw, players roll to sec who gains control of Lesranne's force) and the players fight for three more turns, at the end of which victory is decided using the normal Victory points rules. Lestanne's army arrives as a flanking force, as in the Flank Attack scenario (randomly generate a neutral table edge for him to arrive on).

Ambush(Main Rulebook, p. 209)

The Battle of Pine Crags, Imperial Year 1350

Grungni Goldfinger led an expedition of Dwarf treasure hunters down from the Grey Mountains into the Forest of Loren, seeking burial mounds to rob. Grungni only had old Dwarf sagas and legends to guide him, which dated back to the days before the War of the Beard. The mounds he was seeking were probably chose of the wild heaths which surround the Forest of Loren to the north and west. Grungni's route would thus have to pass through Loren, which had since become the realm of the Wood Elves. The invading force was either unaware of this or recklessly overconfident.

The Dwarfs felled trees and lit fires as they went, which alarmed the Wood Elves dwelling in the forest. When the Dwarfs approached the sacred glades of the Elves, this provoked them to resist. As the invaders advanced along a ravine known to the Wood Elves as the Pine Crags, the Wood Elves, led by Findol ambushed them.

The Elves attacked the Dwarfs with arrows while remaining concealed in the trees and drew the reckless Dwarfs onwards, while the rest of the Wood Elf force closed in from behind. In these circumstances, the Wood Elves would not need to outnumber the Dwarfs and may even have been a smaller force.

Despite forming a shield-wall, the Dwarfs were unable to fight their way back out of the ravine and were all slain.

Overview

In this scenario a smaller force takes advantage of surprise and better position to ambush a larger force.

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer Army lists. The defender has 50% more points than the attacker (rounding fractions down). Eg, 1,500 points of attackers would face 2,250 points of defenders.

Battlefield

Set up the terrain in an agreed manner.

Deployment

  1. The defender must set up their army first, in the deployment zone shown on the map. All units must face towards the same table edge. They do not have to deploy their Scouts until the attacker has set up their army.

  2. The attacker then deploys their army. At least one third of the attacker's units (not counting Scouts, characters and monsters) must be in each deployment zone.

  3. The defender then deploys any Scouts, followed by the attacker deploying their Scouting units.

Who Goes First?

The attacker goes first.

Length of Game

The game lasts for five turns.

Special Rules

There are no additional special rules.

Victory Conditions

Calculate Victory points for destroyed units and units below half strength. Do not award Victory points for anything else. The player with the highest Victory points total is the winner.

Historical Re-fight

The battle took place between Dwarfs and Wood Elves, in a ravine with heavily wooded sides. Other than this, the normal scenario rules apply.

Last Stand(Main Rulebook, p. 210)

Eldreth's Last Stand, Imperial Year 1575

It is not usual for a Dwarf army to be in the position of surrounding the enemy on the battlefield. More often than not it is the other way round. In this battle, known only from the Saga of Thurgar Elfhater, which occurred sometime in the last years of the great War of the Beard between Elves and Dwarfs, a Dwarf force managed to corner a much smaller Elf army. This was probably because the Elves had found themselves in mountain terrain which the Dwarfs knew well. The Elves, of whom we know little except that they were led by Eldreth, a very noble, but somewhat reckless commander, had no option but to defend themselves against the Dwarfs in the hope of slaying all of them. With true Dwarf determination and many grudges to be avenged, there could be no chance of surrender and no quarter would be given on either side. According to the saga, the Elves fought on until darkness fell and then those who remained, being few in number, managed to escape from the tired and exhausted Dwarfs, taking their banner and the body of their slain leader with them.

Overview

In this battle a vastly outmatched defender must sell the lives of his troops as dearly as possible.

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer Army lists. The defender has half the points of the attacker. Eg, 2,000 points of attackers would face 1,000 points of defenders.

Battlefield

Set up the terrain in an agreed manner.

Deployment

  1. The defender must set up their army first, in an 18" square centred on the middle of the table. All of the units must face towards the same table edge. Scouting units must be set up with the rest of the army.

  2. The attacker then deploys their army. They may set up anywhere at least 24" from a defending unit. Scouting units may be set up at least 18" from the enemy.

Who Goes First?

The defender goes first.

Length of Game

The game lasts until the defenders are all either dead or fleeing.

Special Rides

The defenders are expecting to the and so are immune to panic.

Victory Conditions

Calculate Victory points for destroyed attacking units and attacking units reduced to below half strength. If the result is more than the starting points value of the defenders, the defenders win, even if they were wiped out. If it is less than half the starting points value of the defenders, then the attackers win. Any other result is a draw.

Historical Re-fight

Eldreth's Last Stand takes part between a Dwarf army and a High Elf war host. The Dwarfs are attacking, but may not take any blackpowder war engines (bolt throwers and stone throwers only) and may not field Thunderers. Such technology had not been developed by the Dwarfs at the time of the battle. The High Elves may not include any mounted troops or chariots.

Rear Guard(Main Rulebook, p. 211)

The Fall of Chaqua, Imperial Year c.001

A plague, originating from the Skaven Clan Pestilens had spread throughout Lustria devastating the pyramid cities of the Lizardmen. Many of the cities were deserted or abandoned and the Skaven, advancing in the wake of the plague, occupied the ruins. Shortly before the plague arrived in Chaqua, a heavenly portent in the form of a forked tongue (twin-tailed comet) was observed and a sacred plaque foretelling the rise of the god Sorek to overthrow the ratspawn was discovered. Soon after, the Mage-priests of the city perished and were sealed up in hidden vaults by their faithful Saurus guards. Meanwhile the Skinks migrated from the city taking the sacred plaque and news of the new god with them to bring hope and inspiration among the Lizardmen.

The Saurus of Chaqua, and a few other elements of the army remained to guard the deserted city until the bitter end if need be. Suddenly the Skaven arrived, infiltrating the squalid and deserted Skink barrios and closing in on the central plaza. Eventually they made an assault across the plaza to the temple precinct. Opposing them were the last remaining Lizardmen in Chaqua acting as a rearguard while the tombs of the Mage-priest mummies were sealed and the Skinks escaped. The Saurus defied the Skaven for long enough for the last Skinks to seal up the tomb vaults beneath the pyramid with colossal blocks of the hardest stone.

Overview

An outnumbered defending force must hold off their attackers to gain time for the rest of their army to escape. The longer the defenders hold out, The greater the chance that their comrades will escape.

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer Army lists. The defender has half the points of the attacker. Eg, 2,000 points of attackers would face 1,000 points of defenders.

Battlefield

Set up the terrain in an agreed manner.

Deployment

  1. The defender must set up their army first, in the deployment zone shown on the map. Scouting units may deploy up to 6" outside the deployment zone.

  2. The attacker then deploys their army. They may set up anywhere at least 24" from a defending unit (not including defending Scouts). Scouting units must be set up at least 18" from the enemy.

Who Goes First?

The attacker goes first.

Length of Game

The game lasts a random number of turns. At the end of the fifth turn, roll a D6. On a score of 1 the game ends. At the end of the sixth turn roll again, the game end on a score of a 1 or 2, and so on.

Special Rules

The defenders are expecting to die and so are immune to panic.

Victory Conditions

For every turn past the fourth turn the game lasts, the attacker must move at least one unit off one of the defender's table edge. Characters and monsters do not count for these purposes. Also, units that flee off these table edges do not count. If the attacker moves fewer units out of play than there were turns over the fourth, the defender wins. Any other result is an attacker victory: Eg, if the game lasts for seven turns (three turns extra), the attacker must have moved three or more units off the table to win.

Historical Re-fight

This battle is re-fought between the Lizardman defenders and Skaven attackers. The Lizardmen must spend at least a third of their points on Saurus units and characters, while the Skaven, must spend at least half of their points on units and characters from Clan Pestilens. Due to the plague unleashed by the Skaven, the Lizardmen lose 2D6 points worth of troops at the start of every Skaven turn. The Lizardmen player may choose which models to lose. The defender must lose whole models (they can't lose weapons, for example) and so the defender may well have to lose more than the 2D6 roll indicates.

Sheer Heroism!(Main Rulebook, p. 213)

The Seven Knights, Imperial Year 1123

A Bretonnian troubadour song tells of a heroic battle in which seven gallant knights fought against many times their number of Goblins. The Goblins, led by Ironfang had accomplished the defeat of Baron de Fette's army, which had been caught unawares through recklessness and been ambushed in rugged countryside. Only seven knights survived the battle and were riding back, tired and bleeding, to carry on the fight from behind their own castle walls. Their names are recorded as Louen de Ledarre. Guy le Galant, Jules de Touph, Gaston de Reclasse, Bertrand Lestrong, Gui du Lambert and Evrard de Mellay. As they crossed a bridge and rode through a village, the villagers begged them not to abandon them to the Goblins and appealed to their honour. They pointed to the famous grail chapel which would fall into enemy hands. The honour of the knights, had been stung by defeat and they decided that this was as good a place as any to win it back or the in the attempt. The knights armed themselves with holy relics from the shrine and took up their positions awaiting the onslaught. The Goblins appeared and tried to swarm across the bridge as well as various points along the stream, only to be hurled back by the reckless bravery of the knights, charging into the hordes. By the end of the day, all the brave knights lay dead or dying, but not one Goblin crossed the stream and the village was saved.

Overview

A few determined characters set forth to battle an entire army. This is the stuff of legends!

Armies

Both armies are chosen using the Warhammer Army lists. The attacker chooses their army as normal. The defender only chooses from the Characters section of their army list, ignoring all normal restrictions for choosing an army. They may choose twice as many Lords as normally allowed for the size of game being played.

Battlefield

Set up the terrain in an agreed manner.

Deployment

  1. Both players roll a dice. The player who scores highest may choose which table edge is to be the baseline of their deployment zone.

  2. The attacker must set up their army first, in the deployment zone shown below. Scouting units may deploy after the defender.

  3. The defender then deploys their army. They may set up anywhere up to 18" from a short table edge.

  4. The attacker may set up Scouts as outlined in the Warhammer rules.

Who Goes First?

The defender goes first.

Length of Game

The game lasts for six turns.

Special Rules

The defenders are totally dedicated to their cause and are immune to fear, terror and panic.

Victory Conditions

At the end of the battle calculate Victory points to see who has won.

Historical Re-fight

This battle could be fought between seven Bretonnian characters (with no monster mounts) and a 1,500 points army of Goblins (no Orc or Rare units may be chosen). There is a river with a bridge between the armies (the river counts as very difficult terrain). Place several buildings in the Bretonnian deployment zone to represent the village they are defending.

Army Lists

Note: This section is not formally part of the main rulebook, but is included in every army book, individually. A generalised overview of common army structure is presented here.

The purpose of an army list is to enable players with vastly different armies to stage games which are as fair and evenly balanced as it is possible to make them. The army list gives each individual model a points value which represents its capabilities on the tabletop. The higher a model's points value the better it is in one or more respects: stronger, tougher, faster, better leadership, and so on. The value of the army is simply the value of all the models added together.

As well as providing points costs, the list also divides the army into its constituent units. The list describes the weapons and optional equipment that troops can have and occasionally restricts the number of very powerful units an army can include.

How the Army List is Intended to be Used

Army lists enable two players to choose armies of equal points value to fight a battle, as described in the main body of the Warhammer rules. The following list has been constructed with this purpose in mind.

The list can also be used when playing specific scenarios, either those described in the Warhammer rulebook or others, including ones invented by the players. In this case, the list provides a framework which the players can adapt as required. It might, for example, be felt necessary to increase or decrease the number of characters or units allowed, or to restrict or remove options in the standard list such as magic items or monstrous mounts. If you refer to the Scenarios section of the Warhammer rulebook, you'll find some examples of this kind.

Army List Organization

The army list is divided into four sections:

  • Characters

  • Core Units

  • Special Units

  • Rare Units

Characters

These represent the most able, skilled and successful individuals in your army: extraordinary leaders, mighty warriors, powerful wizards and the like. They form a vital and potent part of your forces.

Core Units

Core units represent the most common warriors. They usually form the bulk of the army and will often bear the brunt of the fighting.

Special Units

Special units are the best of your warriors. They can include: heavy hitting infantry, elite cavalry, war machines, scouting forces, chariots, and more. They are available to your army in limited numbers.

Rare Units

Rare units are so called because they are scarce compared to your ordinary troops. They represent unique units, uncommon creatures and unusual machines.

Choosing an Army

Both players choose armies to the same agreed points value. Most players find that 2,000 points is about right for a battle that will last over an evening. Whatever value you agree, this is the maximum number of points you can spend on your army. You can spend less and will probably find it is impossible to use up every last point. Most 2,000 points armies will therefore be something like 1,998 or 1,999 points, but they are still '2,000' points armies for our purposes.

Once you have decided on a total points value it is time to choose your force.

Choosing Characters

Characters are divided into two broad categories: Lords (the most powerful characters) and Heroes (the rest). The maximum number of characters an army can include is shown on the chart below.

Army Points Value

Max. Total Characters

Max. Lords

Max. Heroes

Less than 2,000

3

0

3

2,000 or more

4

1

4

3,000 or more

6

2

6

4,000 or more

8

3

8

Each +1,000

+2

+1

+2

An army does not have to include the maximum number of characters allowed, it can always include fewer than indicated. However, an army must always include at least one character: the General. An army does not have to include Lords, it can include all of its characters as Heroes if you prefer.

Choosing Troops

Troops are divided into Core, Special and Rare units. The number of each type of unit available depends on the army's points value, indicated on the chart below.

Army Points Value

Core Units

Special Units

Rare Units

Less than 2,000

2+

0-3

0-1

2,000 or more

3+

0-4

0-2

3,000 or more

4+

0-5

0-3

4,000 or more

5+

0-6

0-4

Each +1,000

+1 minimum

+0-1

+0-1

In some cases other limitations may apply to a particular kind of unit. This is specified in the unit entry.

Unit Entries

Each unit is represented by an entry in the army list. The unit's name is given and any limitations that apply are explained.

Profiles

The characteristic profiles for the troops in each unit are given in the unit entry. Where several profiles are required, these are also given even if, as in many cases, they are optional.

Unit Sizes

Each entry specifies the minimum size for each unit. In the case of Core units this is usually 10 models. In the case of other units it is usually less. There are exceptions as you will see. In some cases, units also have a maximum size.

Weapons and Armour

Each entry lists the standard weapons and armour for that unit type. The value of these items is included in the points value. Additional or optional weapons and armour cost extra and are covered in the Options section of the unit entry.

Options

Lists the different weapon, armour and equipment options for the unit and any additional points cost for taking them. It may also include the option to upgrade a unit member into a Champion. While this model usually has a specific name all the rules that apply to Champions apply to them.

Special Rules

Many troops have special rules. These rules are also summarised for your convenience in the army list. It would be a long and tedious business to repeat all the special rules for every unit within the army list itself. The army list is intended primarily as a tool for choosing armies rather than for presenting game rules. Wherever possible we have indicated where special rules apply and, where space permits, we have provided notes within the list as 'memory joggers'. Bear in mind that these descriptions are not necessarily exhaustive or definitive and players should refer to the main rules for a full account.

Dogs of War

Dogs of War are troops of other races who are prepared to fight under your flag in return for money, food, or some other suitable reward. The most common type of Dogs of War unit are the Regiments of Renown. Although the two terms are used to describe mercenary units, both work in the same way in the army list. A selection of such regiments are available as part of the Dogs of War range of models. The descriptions and rules for these very specialised units can be found in White Dwarf magazine or the Warhammer Annual.

The option to include Dogs of War units is included in the army list as part of the Rare troops section. However, certain Regiments of Renown are more commonly available and can be included in an army as a Special choice instead of a Rare choice. Some Dogs of War may also take up additional Rare choices, or choices from your Character entries. The rules for individual Regiments of Renown detail exactly which armies may take them and which army list choices they use up.

Appendix One - Warhammer Campaigns(Main Rulebook, p. 232)

Fighting one off battles is all well and good, but at some point or other any serious Warhammer player will consider fighting a campaign. A campaign is the name we give to a series of battles linked together by a story and by the forces fighting it. Battles are not fought in isolation and a campaign reflects this, linking the games you play together to create an enthralling and exciting narrative that will make the games you play much more compelling. As well as providing a reason and 'context' for your battles, in a campaign the result of each battle that you fight will have an effect on future battles; if you suffer an ignominious defeat you will be at some disadvantage in the next battle, while a victory will result in some kind of advantage. Fighting a campaign like this can be a very satisfying experience but is not without its pitfalls, so we've put together this section to describe how to run a campaign, based on methods that have proved successful for the authors. It is by no means exhaustive, but should act as a good starting point for players who want to bring their games to a new level.

Starting a Campaign(Main Rulebook, p. 232)

Most experienced Warhammer players belong to a regular gaming group, either a formal club or an informal group of friends who routinely get together to fight battles. There are many advantages to forming an association with other players. For example, you can pool your resources to buy scenery or pay for the hire of rooms. Players can swap troops amongst themselves, and newcomers can come along and learn the skills of generalship, painting and scenery making.

However, one of the most entertaining group activities is to organise a campaign or league. There are many different ways to run a campaign, ranging from simply linking games together with an ongoing story (usually called a 'narrative campaign'), through to complex map-based campaigns. What follows is a description of the different ways you can approach running a campaign, to give you some idea of the different options available. After this, we've provided a full set of example rules that will allow you to run a simple campaign. Unlike the rules in the rest of this book, the campaign rules really are just an example of one way to run a campaign, and you should feel free to dive in and change them as you see fit for your own campaign. To be honest, being able to tailor the rules to suit your own style of play is one of the really great benefits of running campaign.

Leagues(Main Rulebook, p. 232)

The simplest form of campaign, and one that is well suited to large clubs or gaming groups, is to run a league. In a league the players fight battles as they would normally, but score points depending on how well they do. For example, a win might be worth three points, a draw worth two points and a loss one point. The players' total points are tracked by the league's moderator and the current 'standings' can be posted up when players meet to play games so that everyone can see how well they are doing. You might want to include extra information on the standing sheet, like a player's average score, the number of battles he's fought, and so on.

It's possible to expand on this basic idea and add in some of the trappings of a 'proper' campaign. For example, you might say that a General who wins a battle can add +1 to his Leadership in the next battle he fights, or a unit that captures a Standard is allowed to re-roll a set of dice rolls in its next game. However, the main advantage of a league is that it is easy to run, so if you want to add in much more detail than this to your league you should instead consider running one of the other types of campaign described below.

Narrative Campaigns(Main Rulebook, p. 232)

A narrative campaign is a series of battles linked together by a story. This story is often created by an independent referee who can introduce special scenarios, victory conditions, strange events, extra rules and so forth. The campaign continues like this until the narrative suggests an ending.

For example, many years ago one of the authors ran a narrative campaign based on an Orc invasion of the Empire. The first game took place near the border, as an Empire army attempted to stop the Orcs before they penetrated too far into Empire territory.

The Empire army was decisively defeated and the referee decided that the second game would be about a small Empire force defending a vital bridge in order to slow down the Orc army's progress long enough for a new Empire army to be gathered together. A number of special rules and special pieces of terrain were used in this scenario to represent the unique situation. It was also a good example of an 'unbalanced game' The Empire army was horribly outnumbered, and couldn't hope to win the scenario in the sense of defeating the Orc army.

This didn't matter, however, as the Empire army's objective was only to slow the Orcs down, not to destroy them. The result was an interesting game that was very different from a normal run-of-the-mill battle. You'll be happy to learn that the Orcs were slowed down long enough for a large Empire army to be gathered to confront the Orc horde, setting up a large multi-player battle as the next 'episode' in the campaign.

In some cases, the result of a battle may suggest that one side or the other has a number of different options as to what to do next. For example, a victorious army might be within striking distance of two or more of its objectives, or a defending army might have to decide whether to counter-attack at once or wait for reinforcements. Considering such circumstances, rather than the referee deciding arbitrarily what to do next, the players could decide what happens. What the players opt for will alter the course of the campaign so that their strategic decisions, in combination with the results of the battles fought, will decide the outcome of the campaign.

Of course, a referee isn't essential in a narrative campaign - the players can discuss the various options and decide on the course of their actions between themselves. Alternately the players can take it in turn to devise the scenarios, with the referee running any scenarios that they create. The only important thing to remember is that a narrative campaign, more than any other type of campaign, is about more than just winning games - it's an exciting story where the results of your battles help decide the outcome.

Ladder Campaign(Main Rulebook, p. 233)

In this type of campaign the players agree to play a pre-set series of battles, with each battle affecting the outcome of later battles. Unlike narrative campaigns, which let each battle's outcome drive the story, the links within a ladder campaign are predetermined, so you don't need a referee.

A good example of a ladder campaign was 'The Grudge of Drong', a campaign pack published by Games Workshop some years ago. The campaign consisted of three preliminary battles which led up to an all-out, death or glory final conflict. The first three battles were relatively small actions with up to 1,500 points a side. The final battle involved massed armies of 3,000 points or more. However, the results of the earlier battles restricted what you could include in your army. For example, if the Dwarfs won the first battle (the Battle of Grudge Pass) they could take over a set of mines and have as many war machines in the final battle as they liked; if they lost they could only have a single war machine. The result of the second battle affected the number of runes they could use, and so on.

Tree Campaign(Main Rulebook, p. 233)

A more elaborate form of ladder campaign is known as a tree campaign. This campaign needs a set of pre-written scenarios and a flow diagram which is used to determine what scenarios are played. Each time a battle is fought, the diagram tells you which scenario to play next by following the correct path. The longer the campaign goes on, the larger the diagram will need to be. In the tree campaign example shown above, which uses the scenarios presented in the Scenarios section of this rulebook, there are only two battles to fight and winning or losing determines whether your army achieves a major victory in the campaign or is crushed by your foes.

In more involved campaigns you could also include paths on the diagram which loop back, or sub-plots that branch off of the main tree. You can also allow winning or losing certain scenarios to have a permanent effect on an army as well as determining the next scenario that is played. For example, winning a battle might allow an army to use a unique magic item you've created for the campaign in all its future battles. The amount of variation depends only on the campaign's background and your imagination.

Map Campaigns(Main Rulebook, p. 233)

A map-based campaign uses a map (well who'd have thought it!). This shows the extent of each player's empire and the territories that they control. The map can also be used to regulate movement and show the location of each player's army and characters.

The campaign rules that follow are an example of the first type of map-based campaign, where the map is used to simply show how large each player's empire is and what territories he controls. Refer to the rules to find out how this type of campaign works.

In the second type of map-based campaign, the location of each player's army is shown on the map. This is somewhat more easily said than done, as a campaign usually lasts for weeks, if not months, and the map will need to be permanently set up during this period. One solution is to mount the map on a cork board and use map pins to show the location of the armies, or use Blu-Tak to stick counters onto the map. There are campaign turns between battles, in which the players move their armies around the map. When armies move into each other on the map a battle is fought to determine the outcome of the encounter.

Map campaigns like this often include special rules to cover things such as scouts, supply, raising new troops, assassins, revolts and all kinds of other events. Often, this side of the campaign turns into a game in its own right and actually fighting battles on the tabletop becomes secondary to outmanoeuvring your opponent on the campaign map.

Sadly, while map-based campaigns like these offer the greatest number of possibilities in terms of what can be done, in the author's experience they very rarely work in practice unless they are played by a small group of very dedicated players. The reason is that in order for the campaign to work it is vital that any battles which result from movement on the map are fought out promptly, as otherwise the campaign will bog down waiting for the result of a certain battle.

The other problem is that a cunning General will do his best to make sure that when he fights a battle he has ensured that the odds are well in his favour and that he heavily outnumbers his opponent. This can result in very lop-sided games that are not all that much fun to play; what's more, once you've lost one battle things tend to 'steam-roller' and it becomes increasingly difficult to win future battles. For these reasons, it helps to keep map-based campaigns quite small and with limited objectives. It also helps to have a 'campaign umpire' who can force the players to fight their battles in time for the next campaign turn, and impose forfeits on players that do not. However, the best asset such a campaign can have is very dedicated players, who will play their battles before the next campaign turn and won't drop out when things start going against them.

Running a Campaign(Main Rulebook, p. 234)

You don't have to have an umpire or controller to run a campaign, but most players would agree that things go better if a person is nominated as overall umpire. The umpire can interpret the rules and improvise new ones, keep the players informed about forthcoming battles and invent special events, spread rumours and generally keep the campaign going. An umpire can be one of the players, or he can be someone who devotes all of his time to running the campaign and does not play himself. Another option is for different players to take it in turns to be umpire, sharing the burden equally.

The most useful thing that an umpire can do is publish a regular campaign newsletter in which battles fought over the previous weeks are summarised, the defeated are mocked, players are listed and their achievements recorded. Victorious players can place notices of their success and ridicule their enemies. The newsletter can also be used to announce local events and special games.

The opportunity to play God is probably as much fun as actually fighting the battles, and an imaginative umpire can make a big contribution to a campaign. He can also ensure that players don't deliberately avoid fighting enemies whom they fear will beat them, and can impose penalties on players that fail to show up for games. The umpire can also draw the campaign to a close once the players start to lose interest or one player gains ascendancy. All campaigns, even the very best, come to an end at some point, and it's generally better to make sure this happens sooner rather than later. Leave your players eager for more so that they join up for the next campaign with alacrity!

Finally, bear in mind that a campaign is not wholly fair or perfectly balanced. They aren't, and aren't meant to be. Part of the challenge of a campaign is to fight a battle against the odds - after all, if you lose such a battle it doesn't mean much, while if you win, the glory is greatly enhanced! In any case, a good umpire will be able to even things out without displaying blatant favouritism.

The Border Princes(Main Rulebook, p. 234)

The rules that follow will allow a group of players to fight a simple map-based campaign set in the Border Princes. The Border Princes is a wild territory that lies to the south of the Empire. It has no single ruler, but is instead made up of many petty princedoms each with its own ruler. In truth, many of the 'rulers' are little better than brigands who make a living by extorting tolls from the travellers that pass through their territory, and by raiding and stealing from their neighbours. Many of the Border Princes kingdoms are very short-lived, but there are always new adventurers ready to try and carve themselves out a princedom, exercising what authority they can by sheer force of arms. The Border Princes thus forms a perfect place to set a campaign, as it allows pretty much any army to exist side by side in the same area.

As noted above, this is a map-based campaign. The map is used mainly to show what territories each player controls within their kingdom and is not used to regulate movement or show the location of the players' armies. Instead, each player in the campaign is allowed to arrange battles in pretty much the same manner that they would arrange a normal one-off battle. The difference is that the forces a player can use in his army may be restricted by the territories that he controls, while the outcome of the battle may affect the political situation and determine who controls certain territories on the map. This system allows those taking part to play each other as and when they wish, without obligation to play a set number of games or against any particular opponents. We've found that this very loose format is a great advantage when playing a campaign, as it makes it possible for players to participate on an occasional basis.

Getting Started(Main Rulebook, p. 234)

In order to start the campaign you'll need at least four players, but the more the merrier! Once you've got your players together you need to create a map (or you could use the one on the opposite page!). You'll see that each player has their own 'princedom' shown on the map, and that each princedom is subdivided into three territories and a capital. Coastal areas, mountain ranges and areas of wilderness have been added to the map between and around the princedoms. This makes it look attractive, though they have no direct effect on play. The map and the princedoms marked upon it can be of pretty much any size, just so long as the territories within each princedom include enough space to add the important territorial features that are within them (more of which next).

Once you have made up a map with a princedom for each player, it's time to determine what important territorial features he controls. These territorial features represent settlements, geographical features and other resources which constitute the player's empire. These territories are generated randomly from the Territory chart on page 237. As noted earlier, each player also gets a capital, which is in effect a fourth territorial feature already marked on the map. The more territories a player controls, the bigger and better his army will be, and the more varied the types of troops he can field.

The players take it in turn to pick one feature and randomly generate two more. They then mark the territories on the map of their princedom (each territory can have only one feature). We've found it best to mark the features in pencil and then for one player (preferably the most artistically gifted!) to update the map so that all the features are represented in a pleasing manner. The illustration shows our map once the features have been generated and added to it. Notice that in some cases the features 'spill' outside the territory. This is purely decorative and has no effect on play, but it does mean that you don't get odd things like roads or rivers that don't lead anywhere! We've also added names to the important features on the map.

Campaign Armies(Main Rulebook, p. 235)

Before the campaign begins, the participating players need to agree a suitable points value for their armies. This is the base or starter value of all armies in the campaign and a player may field a larger army by conquering more territories. A reasonable starting value is 1,500 points, although you might wish to start with 1,000 points if players do not already have large established armies, or 2,000 points it all the participants are veteran players with large armies.

Each time players fight a battle they choose an army to the agreed points total, modified by the territories which they control, as described later on. Forces are chosen afresh for each battle, although a player must stick to the same race each time - Orcs, High Elves, Bretonnians, etc. The armies are chosen from the appropriate army list with the additional limitations described as follows. The players may agree additional limitations if they wish.

Army Limitations(Main Rulebook, p. 235)

The number and type of troops which a player can field is restricted by the territories that they control. Because of this, the limitations of what can be included in the army lists are not used. To begin with, each player is restricted in his choices for his army as follows:

Characters: Each army is allowed one character, representing the player himself. This character may be of any type allowed to the army. Otherwise the army may not include characters unless the player controls a territory that allows them to be used.

Special troops: The army may have two units of special troops. Additional special units may only be included if the player controls the appropriate territories.

Rare troops: The army may have one unit of Rare troops. Additional Rare units may only be included if the player controls the appropriate territories.

Skirmishers: A player's army may not include troops that can skirmish unless the player's territories include mountains or forests; the people from such territories provide the bulk of skirmishing troops.

War machines: The army may have one war machine. Additional war machines may only be included if the player controls the appropriate territories.

Monsters: The army may have one monster. Additional monsters may only be included if the player controls the appropriate territories.

Magic items: The player's army may have up to three magic items with a points value of no greater than 100 points in total. Any additional magic items may only be included if the player controls the appropriate territories.

The Capital(Main Rulebook, p. 235)

Each player's princedom includes a capital. It is the capital which allows the player to use the special units, rare units, war machines, monsters and magic items noted above. If it is ever lost then none of these things may be used unless the player controls other territories that allow him to use them.

To War, To War!(Main Rulebook, p. 236)

Players are free to fight each other as they wish, representing encounters along their common borders, intrusions into their rival's territory, chance encounters in the wilderness and other minor conflicts. These clashes don't result in the loss of territory but can have other consequences, and can lead to an outright war of conquest.

Before the battle, roll on the Scenario table on page 197 to determine the scenario that will be used for the battle. Note that this stage is not optional; in a campaign not all battles are even head-to-head fights and the Scenario table represents this fact. You are now ready to begin fighting the battle.

Each player uses his entire army for the battle, even though their points value may be different because the players hold different territories. Terrain can be set up for the game in any mutually agreed manner.

Fight the battle using the rules for the scenario being played. The winner of the battle may choose to 'steal' the benefits of one of his opponent's territories and use them in his next battle. The loser must forgo all benefits of that territory in his next battle. The winner may not choose to steal the benefits of the loser's capital unless this is the only territory left.

For example, Rick wins a battle against Tuomas and chooses to steal the benefits from Tomas's mine territory. This means that Rick counts as having a mine in his next battle, while Tuomas does not. The effect of stealing the benefits of a territory in this way only counts for the next battle. The territory does not permanently change hands.

Wars of Conquest(Main Rulebook, p. 236)

Every time you fight against another player you will score Grudge points against them. These represent the simmering anger generated by a conflict, which can cause it to escalate into a full-scale invasion! The number generated depends on the outcome; the winner of a battle receives one Grudge point, and the loser gets two. In a draw, both players get two points. Keep track of the Grudge points you have against each opposing player.

When you fight a battle against an opponent that you have Grudge points against, you can try to escalate the battle. Roll a D6 and compare the number rolled to the amount of Grudge points that you have against this opponent. If you roll equal to or under the number of Grudge points you have the battle escalates. If you roll higher the battle is fought normally. In either case, all the Grudge points you have against this opponent are reduced to zero after the attempt to escalate the conflict.

If the conflict escalates then it becomes a war of conquest. The battle is fought using the normal rules, but if the player who escalated the conflict wins, instead of stealing the benefits of a territory for one battle, he is allowed to conquer a territory and add it to his empire. Denote a captured territory on the campaign map with a suitable marker. A player's capital can only be captured if it is the last territory they control.

It is possible for both players in a battle to escalate the conflict. If both do this the winner is allowed to take a territory from the loser.

Winning The Campaign(Main Rulebook, p. 236)

It is entirely up to the players to set a limit on how long the campaign lasts. A campaign could go on indefinitely, but it is often better to end it once a player has established a dominant position. In this way a winner can be declared and a new campaign
started.

Saying that the winner is the first to conquer three territories, or get so strong that the other players refuse to fight him, is a good method for your first campaign. By then you'll have developed your own ideas about how to 'improve' this campaign system, and will probably be thinking about adding in new rules for things such as spies, assassins, ambassadors, etc. The possibilities really are endless.

Territory Chart(Main Rulebook, p. 237)

Each player picks one territory from this chart then randomly generates two more. To randomly generate a territory roll two ordinary D6s one after the other. The first roll represents 'tens' and the second 'units' to give you a score between 11 and 66. This method of rolling dice is referred to as a 'D66 roll'.

D66

Result

11-12

Wizard's Tower
For each wizard's tower you control your army may include one extra Wizard. The Wizard may not be a Wizard Lord but can be of any other type allowed in your army.

13-14

Sacred Grove
For each sacred grove you control your army may include one extra Rare unit.

15

Shrine
For each shrine you control your army may include one Battle Standard Bearer. An army may never have more
than one Battle Standard no matter how many shrines it controls.

16

Temple
For each temple you control your army may include one extra Wizard Lord.

21-32

Village
For each village you control your army may include one extra Special unit.

33-34

Town
For each town you control your army may include one extra character. The character may not be a Lord but can be of any other type.

35-43

Road
If you control a road you are able to move troops more quickly to meet your enemy. To represent this add 25 points to your army for each road under your control.

44-46

River
The land near a river is very rich and provides frequent and bountiful harvests. To represent this add 25 points to your army for each river you control.

51-52

Bridge
If you control a bridge then you are able to move troops more quickly to meet your enemy, while the rich soil makes perfect farmland. To represent this add 50 points to your army for each bridge you control.

53

Silver Mine
For each silver mine you control you may take one magic item worth 50 points.

54

Gold Mine
For each gold mine you control you may take one magic item worth 100 points.

55

Mountain Pass
If you control a pass you are able to move troops through to reach your enemy. To represent this add 75 points to your army for each pass you control.

56

Mountains
If you control a mountain your army may include up to two extra monsters. In addition roll a D6. On a roll of '6' the mountain includes a gold mine (see above).

61-65

Forest
If you control a forest your army has sufficient supplies of wood to build two extra war machines.

66

Ruins
You may take one magic item worth 3D6x10 points. It is retained by your forces and its value is added to the points value of your army. The magic item can be given to any character in the normal way at the start of a battle. If the character carrying the item is lost then the item is captured by the opposing side, who may use it in future battles just as if they had discovered it themselves.

Appendix Two - Preparing for Battle(Main Rulebook, p. 238)

It is quite possible to play a game of Warhammer with an army that consists of every model you own, regardless of race or quantity! However, as I'm sure will be immediately apparent, such a game wouldn't be very satisfying and is unlikely to be very fair. It would also be missing the point. Warhammer is about collecting an army of one of the races of the Warhammer world and bringing it to battle against an equally matched opponent.

In order to ensure that games are as fair as we can make them, every model is ascribed a points value which reflects its value in the game as closely as possible. Of course, some players will naturally tend to do better with certain types of troops, so those types may be more effective under their command.

Similarly, some types of troops will perform better in certain kinds of terrain or against specific opponents. For example, a huge, monstrous Dragon isn't going to be worried if it finds itself confronted by a horde of tiny Goblins because the Goblins are just too small and weedy to stand much chance of hurting it - in such a situation the Goblins are literally worth almost nothing!

Bearing all of this in mind, it is obviously impossible for points values to reflect the absolute value of every model in every circumstance. Instead, a model's points value is a useful compromise which should be viewed as representing its fighting ability in the circumstances of a typical battle.

The Army Points Value(Main Rulebook, p. 238)

When Warhammer players arrange a game it is usual to fix a points value total for each side - typically 2,000 points or 3,000 points for a really big game. Of course, there is no limit on the size of the armies. You can fight a game with 500 points a side, 1,000, 10,000 or 10 million points and anything in between! For practical purposes, however, 2,000 or 3,000 points is usually regarded as just about right for a game that will last over an evening or the best part of an afternoon. Games of up to 3,000 points can be accommodated on a table of about 4' x 6-8' (120cm x 180-240cm) whilst larger games will usually require more time and a larger playing area.

The lists of points values for all the different troop types, including machines, monsters, characters, and magic items are given in complete detail in the Warhammer Armies books. Each book covers the army of one race and includes an army list that explains which troops the army is allowed, along with their points values. So, for example, we have one book which covers the High Elves, and others for the Empire, Skaven, Orcs & Goblins, and so forth. The lists are far too exhaustive to give here in their complete form, but to give you an idea we have included some details of army composition and points values in the examples that follow.

Unit Points Values(Main Rulebook, p. 238)

Units are usually made up of a number of models of the same type. It therefore follows that a unit of, say, ten models each of, let us assume, 9 points is worth a total of 10 x 9 = 90 points. It is quite usual to refer to a unit in terms of its value, so you might hear players talk of 'a 140 point unit of Orc warriors', '150 points of High Elf archers', or some such expression. As most practically sized units are likely to be between 100 and 300 points, it can be assumed that a 2,000 point army would have about ten units.

However, this doesn't allow for character models. Once points have been allocated for these important pieces the typical 2,000 point army is more likely to have about seven units in total, of which some might be a single piece such as a chariot or war machine.

Obviously this varies; we need only consider the matter here insofar as it gives a fair idea of what's meant by a 2,000 point army.

The Orc Army(Main Rulebook, p. 238)

Orcs are one of the most dangerous of the monstrous races that inhabit the Warhammer world; they are also one of the most popular armies amongst Warhammer players. The 'Orc' army actually encompasses many different creatures of which Orcs are but one type, so we often refer to the army as 'Orcs & Goblins' or 'greenskins'. We are going to use one type of Orc army as an example of how a player might put together such a varied army. The same considerations also apply no matter what army you choose.

If you want to collect an Orc army then you will need the separate Orcs & Goblins Army book. This contains extra games rules, more magic spells and items, and extensive painting and collecting tips, as well as the all important army list.

The army list is used to choose an army before each battle. Obviously, you will need to assemble a collection of models from which you can choose the exact force for a particular battle. Needless to say, most players prefer to build a collection around a typical 2,000 or 3,000 point army, but it's always a good idea to have a few extra models to give you some additional choice.

Before we start to look at the details of how to choose a force for a battle, it is worth pointing out that most players will cheerfully buy and paint a handful of models before deciding to commit to collecting a whole army. There's no point in buying hundreds of Orcs only to discover that you really can't abide painting green! So, whatever army you fancy the look of, buy a few samples first and see how you get on painting them. It doesn't matter if you dabble with several races before settling on the one you like best, it is far more important to choose the army that is right for you.

The Army List(Main Rulebook, p. 238)

As well as providing points costs for different models, the army list also divides the army into its constituent units. For example, the Orc army list includes Orc Boyz, Goblins, Orc Boar Boy and Snotlings... amongst others. For each of these units, the list defines the weapons the unit has and any optional upgrades it can include.

The list also places certain restrictions on the availability of some models. It would plainly be ridiculous for an army to consist entirely of fire-breathing Dragons, thundering cannons or Giants, to give just three examples. The army lists are designed to restrict the player's choice of units and characters so that the resulting force is reasonably balanced and will make for an enjoyable and fair game.

How the Lists are Organised(Main Rulebook, p. 239)

The Warhammer Army books that go with this rulebook are entirely new. The army lists they contain are quite different in detail to earlier versions published for previous editions of this game. It is therefore worth explaining how these work for the benefit of veteran and beginner players alike.

The army lists in each of the Army books are divided into four basic sections: characters, core troops, special troops and rare troops.

Characters represent individual character models. In the case of the Orcs these are the most able, brutal and successful individuals in your army. Amongst them are included extraordinary leaders such as Big Bosses and sorcerous Shamans.

Core troops represent the most common warriors in the army. These usually form the bulk of the army and will often bear the brunt of the fighting. Every army has to include at least some core units.

Special troops are the best of the army's warriors, as well as certain war machines or chariots. These are available in limited numbers.

Rare troops are so called because they are scarce compared to ordinary warriors. This category includes uncommon monsters, unusual war machines and unique units of extraordinary troops.

In as far as it is practical, you will find that the core troops, the ones you will need most of, are available in the form of plastic kits. This enables you to build up a force of core troops relatively cheaply. Special and rare troops are available only as metal models, but their individual fighting worth is greater than that of core troops so fewer are needed to match a specific points value. Rare troops include many of the especially large, spectacular and effective pieces. In the case of the Orc army this category includes Giants, for example. Such models are relatively expensive and require expert assembly and painting, as is reflected by their high points value and status as rare troops.

Selecting the Army(Main Rulebook, p. 239)

Unless players have elected to fight a scenario that requires otherwise, games are played to an agreed points value for each army. If players agree to a 2,000 points game, this means that each player can spend up to 2,000 points on his army. He cannot spend more points but he may spend less. Sometimes, it's impossible to spend all the points, so a typical 2,000 point army might contain 1,998 or 1,999 points. This doesn't matter! The army is still a 2,000 point army for the purpose of determining the characters and units available.

Selecting Characters(Main Rulebook, p. 239)

Character models are divided into two categories - the best and the rest! In the case of Orcs these are Warlords (the best) and Big Bosses (the rest). The maximum number of characters an army can contain is determined by its agreed points size as shown on the example chart below. Bear in mind that this is only an example chart - the actual chart for each specific army may well vary in detail.

Army Points Value

Max. Total Characters

Max. Lords

Max. Heroes

Less than 2,000

3

0

3

2,000 or more

4

1

4

3,000 or more

6

2

6

4,000 or more

8

3

8

Each +1,000

+2

+1

+2

So, in this case, a 1,500 point army could include a maximum of three characters, of which up to all three could be Heroes and none can be a Lord. In a 3,500 points army there can be a maximum of six characters with up to two Lords. The army doesn't have to include the maximum number of characters and doesn't have to include Lords at all.

Selecting Troops(Main Rulebook, p. 239)

Troops are divided into three categories. The number of each type available depends upon the agreed points value of the army in the same way as for characters. As with the Character chart, the Troop chart below is an example, the chart for each army may well be different.

Army Points Value

Core Units

Special Units

Rare Units

Less than 2,000

2+

0-3

0-1

2,000 or more

3+

0-4

0-2

3,000 or more

4+

0-5

0-3

4,000 or more

5+

0-6

0-4

Each +1,000

+1 minimum

+0-1

+0-1

As you can see every army has to include a minimum number of core troop units. The bigger the army is, the more core units it needs to include. More core units can be included if desired. In the case of special and rare troops the number of units is restricted to a maximum in each case.

The number of models a unit can (or must) include is also indicated in each army list. Core troops must be of a specified minimum size consistent with the idea that these are numerous troops. For example, in the Orc army a Night Goblin unit must be at least 20 models strong, whilst an Orc Boyz unit must have at least ten models. Special units usually have smaller minimum sizes, for example, five models in the case of Orc Boar Boyz.

Selecting Options(Main Rulebook, p. 239)

The army list for each army includes options and upgrades for characters and units of troops. All of these cost extra points to reflect the increased worth of the character or troops.

For example, characters can carry extra weapons or extra armour. They might ride some kind of mount, a boar in the case of Orcs, or they might ride in a chariot or on a monster.

In the case of characters that are also Wizards (Shamans in the Orc army) they can also increase their magic level at additional cost. Characters can also carry magic items to a predetermined total points value, and the more powerful the character the greater the total points value of magic items he can carry.

Units of troops can also be given extra weapons or armour. In the case of units all the models are given the same options automatically, so the total cost will vary depending on the size of the unit. In addition some troops have unique options depending on their type. For example, one unit of Orc Boyz can be chosen to represent 'Big 'Uns' - the best warriors in the tribe with improved characteristic values.

In most cases a unit of troops can also have individuals upgraded to represent a Champion (called Bosses in an Orc army), Standard Bearer or Musician. Champions have superior characteristics and cost extra points as you would expect.

Appendix Three - Warhammer Skirmish(Main Rulebook, p. 242)

Sometimes you might not have time to play a full-scale battle, or perhaps your armies are not yet completely painted. In such situations the rules given below will allow you to play games using small skirmish forces.

The Skirmish rules allow you to play battles between small forces of a dozen or so models. When you start playing you can decide who has the first turn, what scenery to use, etc, by using the core Warhammer rules or by agreeing with your opponent first.

All Warhammer rules apply in a skirmish game apart from the exceptions and modifications given below.

Mordheim: City of the Damned (available from Games Workshop's Mail Order and stores) provides a complete set of rules for skirmish battles set in the Warhammer world.

The Skirmish Force(Main Rulebook, p. 242)

The following rules work best with modest forces, say 100-250 points per side. Such forces should include very few, if any, magic items or Wizards (who should be limited to Level 1). You should choose one character from your army list to act as leader. A Hero level character will make a fine leader for the skirmish force and rules for leaders are explained below. Otherwise, feel free to choose any troops that suit the scenario you're playing, ignoring the limitations of core, special and rare units.

The biggest difference between Warhammer and the Warhammer skirmish game is that in a skirmish game each model forms a unit on its own, rather than several models being formed into units in ranks.

Skirmish Scenarios(Main Rulebook, p. 242)

The skirmish force The following rules work best with modest forces, say 100-250 points per side. Such forces should include very few, if any, magic items or Wizards (who should be limited to Level 1). You should choose one character from your army list to act as leader. A Hero level character will make a fine leader for the skirmish force and rules for leaders are explained below. Otherwise, feel free to choose any troops that suit the scenario you're playing, ignoring the limitations of core, special and rare units. The biggest difference between Warhammer and the Warhammer skirmish game is that in a skirmish game each model forms a unit on its own, rather than several models being formed into units in ranks.

Phases(Main Rulebook, p. 242)

To keep track of who is doing what and when, each turn is split into four phases. This is called the Turn Sequence.

Turn Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 242)

  1. Recovery
    During the Recovery phase you may attempt to rally individuals who have lost their nerve and recover models who have been knocked down or stunned.

  2. Movement
    During the Movement phase you may move the warriors of your force according to the rules given in the Movement section.

  3. Magic
    In the Magic phase any Wizards in your force may use spells.

  4. Shooting
    In the Shooting phase you may shoot with any appropriate weapons as described in the rules for shooting.

  5. Close combat
    During the Close Combat phase all models in close combat may fight. Note that both sides fight in the Close Combat phase, regardless of whose turn it is.

Recovery Phase(Main Rulebook, p. 242)

During the Recovery phase you may attempt to rally any of your models that have lost their nerve. To take a Rally test, roll 2D6. If the score is equal to or less than the model's Leadership, the model stops fleeing and has rallied; turn it to face in any direction you wish. The model cannot move or shoot for the rest of the turn, but models able to do so can cast spells. If it fails the dice roll, the model continues to flee towards the closest table edge.

Note that a model cannot rally if the closest model to him is an enemy model (fleeing, stunned, knocked down and hidden models are not taken into consideration for this).

During the Recovery phase, warriors in your force who have been stunned become knocked down and warriors who have been knocked down may stand up (see the Injuries section).

Movement Phase(Main Rulebook, p. 242)

During the Movement phase models are moved in the following order:

  1. Charge!
    If you want a model in your force to charge at an enemy model and attack it in close combat then you must do this at the start of the Movement phase before moving any of your other models.

    When you charge a model, declare to your opponent that it is doing so and indicate which of his models it is attacking.

  2. Compulsory moves
    Sometimes a model is forced to move in a certain way and this is called a compulsory move. For example, a fighter whose nerve breaks must run away from his enemies and take cover.

    Make all of our models' compulsory moves before finishing any remaining movement.

  3. Remaining moves
    Once you have moved your chargers and made any compulsory moves that are needed, you may move the rest of your warriors as you see fit.

Moving(Main Rulebook, p. 242)

During their Movement phase, models can move up to their Movement rate in any direction. They may move up and down ladders and stairs and over low obstacles such as barrels and boxes.

In normal circumstances, models are not obliged to move their full distance, and don't have to move at all if you do not want them to. Any exceptions are explained later on and invariably involve either charging or compulsory moves.

Running(Main Rulebook, p. 243)

The Movement value represents how far a warrior can move whilst going at a fairly rapid rate, allowing him time to aim and shoot a weapon and to observe what is going on around him. If you wish, a model may move much quicker than this - he can run! A running warrior can move at double speed (for example, 8" rather than 4"). Note that running is not the same as charging as it does not allow your model to engage the enemy in close combat.

A model can only run if there are no enemy models within 8" at the start of the turn (fleeing, stunned, knocked down and hidden models do not count). Check this distance after any charges have been declared. If there are any enemies within 8" at the start of the turn, the model will prepare to fight instead and so is unable to run. The running model can move closer than 8" to an enemy as it moves.

Any model that runs loses its chance to shoot during that turn. He is concentrating on running and is not prepared to fight, having sheathed or shouldered his weapons. You should declare that models are running as they move, as this will remind both players that the model is unable to shoot that turn. Running models can cast spells as normal.

Charge!(Main Rulebook, p. 243)

If you want a model to engage the enemy in close combat then you must make a special move called a charge. Without measuring the distance, declare that your model is charging and indicate which enemy model he is going to attack. You can charge any opposing model if you can draw an unobstructed line from your model to the target. If your warrior wants to charge an enemy model within 4" that he can't see (eg, it is behind a corner) but has not been declared as hidden, he must pass an Initiative test to detect it. If he fails the roll, your model may not charge this turn, but can move his normal distance, shoot and cast spells.

A charge is like a running move and is performed at double the model's Movement rate, but ends with the attacker moving by the most direct route into base contact with an enemy model. Once their bases are touching they are engaged in close combat.

Models are also considered to be in close combat even when separated by a low wall or obstacle, where it is impossible for bases to physically touch because the obstacle is in the way.

A model may charge any model within its charge range as long as there is no enemy model who is not in combat within 2" of the charge route (see diagram). It will undoubtedly be intercepted if it tries to run past the enemy.

In this situation, move the intercepting model into the charge path and the charging model then engages the intercepting model instead of his original target. The charging model still counts as charging when determining the strike order, weapon bonuses, etc.

Intercepting a Charge: Top: Interception area. Middle: C can intercept A while he is charging B because he is within intercept distance. Bottom: C cannot intercept A while he is charging B because he is too far away.

Sometimes a charging warrior may not reach the enemy because you have miscalculated the distance. If this happens, move your warrior his normal Move distance towards the enemy. This is called a failed charge. The model cannot shoot in the same turn in which he failed a charge, but he can cast spells as normal.

Models cannot be moved into close combat except by charging - any move that brings a warrior into close combat is a charge by definition.

Charging More than One Opponent(Main Rulebook, p. 243)

If you can move your warrior into base contact with more than one enemy model with its charge move, it can charge them both. This might be inadvisable as it will then be fighting two enemies at once!

Hiding(Main Rulebook, p. 243)

The Hiding rule represents warriors concealing themselves in a way that our unmoving and dramatically posed models cannot. A hiding warrior keeps as still as possible, just peeking out of cover.

A model can hide if it ends its move behind a low wall, a column or in a similar position where it could reasonably conceal himself. The player must declare that the warrior is hiding and place a counter (such as a coin, dice, etc) beside the model for it to count as being hidden.

A model that runs, flees, is stunned or charges cannot hide that turn. His sudden burst of speed prevents it.

A model may stay hidden over several turns, so long as he stays behind a wall or similar feature. He may even move around provided that he stays hidden while doing so. If an enemy moves so that he can see the hidden warrior, the model is no longer hidden and the counter is removed.

When hidden, a warrior cannot be seen, shot at or charged. When hiding, a model cannot shoot or cast spells without giving away its position. If a hidden model shoots, or moves so that he can be seen, he is no longer hidden and can be shot at.

A model may not hide if he is too close to an enemy model - he will be seen or heard no matter how well concealed. Enemy warriors will always see, hear or otherwise detect hidden foes within their Initiative value in inches. So a warrior whose Initiative value is 3 will automatically spot all hidden enemies within 3".

Climbing(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

Ruined buildings, etc, do not always have stairs or ladders, so your warriors will have to climb to reach higher ground.

Any model (except animals!) can climb up or down fences, walls, etc. He must be touching what he wants to climb at the start of his Movement phase. He may climb up to his total movement in a single Movement phase (but cannot run while he is climbing). Any remaining movement can be used as normal. If the height is more than the model's normal move, he cannot climb the wall.

To climb, a model must first take an Initiative test. If he fails the test whilst climbing up, he cannot move that turn. If he fails the test while he is climbing down, he falls from where he started his descent (see the Falling section).

Jumping Down(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

Your warrior may jump down from high places such as walkways and balconies at any time during his Movement phase (to a maximum height of 6'). Take an Initiative test for every full 2" he jumps down. If he fails any of the tests, the model falls from the point where he jumped, takes damage (see Falling) and may not move any more during the Movement phase. If successful, the model can continue his movement as normal (jumping down does not use up any of the model's Movement allowance).

Diving Charge(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

You may charge any enemy troops that are below a balcony or overhang, etc, that your model is on. If an enemy model is within 2" of the place where your warrior lands, he may make a diving charge against that model. Take an Initiative test for each full 2" of height the model jumped down, up to a maximum of 6", like a normal jump. If he fails any of them, your model has fallen and suffers damage, may not move any more during the Movement phase and cannot charge the enemy. If he succeeds, the model gains a +1 Strength bonus and +1 to hit bonus but only during the following Close Combat phase.

Jumping Over Gaps(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

Models may jump over gaps (up to a maximum of 3") and streets, (eg, from the roof of one building to another).

Jumping Down: The Orc runs/charges from the top of a building, jumping down during the move. It moves 3" to reach the edge, then jumps down and has to see whether it can safely make it to the ground. As it has to jump down 5", it must pass two Initiative tests to avoid taking D3 S5 hits. If it fails it will stop its move at the bottom of the wall (if it is not taken out of action). If it passes both tests, it can continue its run/charge and move the remaining 7".

Deduct the distance jumped from the model's movement but remember that you cannot measure the distance before your model jumps. If your model does not have enough movement to jump the distance, it automatically falls. If your model is able to cover the distance, it must pass an Initiative test first or will fall. A model is able to jump over a gap and still fire a missile weapon if it is not running. It may also jump as part of its charge or running move.

Warriors Knocked Down or Stunned(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

If a warrior is knocked down or stunned (see the Injury section on page 245) within 1" of the edge of a roof or building, there is a chance that it will slip and fall off.

Take an Initiative test. If the model is unfortunate enough to fail the test, it falls over the edge to the ground and suffers damage.

Falling(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

A model that falls takes D3 hits at a Strength equal to the height in inches that it fell (eg, if the model fell 4", it would take D3 hits at Strength 4). No armour saves apply. Falling will not cause critical hits (see the Close Combat section for the Critical hits
rules).

A model that falls may not move any further or hide during that turn, even if it is not hurt.

Magic Phase(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

During the Magic phase, Wizards can cast spells as detailed in the Magic section. For the purposes of spells which target units, all enemy models that are within 2" of each other are considered to be a single unit, and can all be affected by spells which target units.

Shooting Phase(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

Apart from the following exceptions, all the normal rules governing shooting in Warhammer apply:

During your force's Shooting phase each of your warriors may shoot once with one of his weapons. This means that he can fire a bow, shoot with a crossbow, or hurl a throwing knife, for example.

Work through the models one at a time. Pick which warrior is going to shoot, nominate his target, work out whether he hits the enemy and, if he does, any wounds or injuries that are caused. Then continue with the next shooter. You can take shots in any order you wish. Be sure to remember or note down which models have already shot.

Who Can Shoot(Main Rulebook, p. 244)

Each model can shoot once during the Shooting phase, so long as the model can see a target and assuming that it has a suitable weapon to shoot with.

The model may not fire in the following circumstances: if it is engaged in close combat, has run or failed a charge in the Movement phase, has rallied this turn or is stunned or knocked down.

To shoot at a target, a model must be able to see it, and the only way to check this is to stoop over the tabletop for a model's eye view.

Models can see all around themselves (ie, 360°, and they may be turned freely to face in any direction before firing. Note that turning on the spot does not count as moving.

Closest Target(Main Rulebook, p. 245)

Your model must shoot at the closest enemy because he represents the most immediate threat and therefore the most obvious target. However, he may shoot at a more distant target if it is easier to hit or if closer models are stunned or knocked down (see the diagram below).

For example, a closer target may be hard to hit because it is in cover, whilst a more distant target might be in the open and therefore an easier shot.

Your model can shoot at models that are fleeing, knocked down or stunned, but he can choose to ignore them, because they do not represent an immediate threat. It is better to shoot the closest standing enemy model instead.

Note that your model may not shoot at models engaged in close combat, as the risk of hitting his comrades is too great.

Multiple Targets: Here, the closest target (A) is behind cover and so is harder to hit than the more distant targets B, C and D. In this situation the firer may shoot at target B even though he is further away than A.

Shooting From an Elevated Position(Main Rulebook, p. 245)

A model situated in an elevated position (ie, anything that is more than 2" above the table surface, such as an upper floor of a building) may freely pick any target he can see and shoot at it. The exception to this rule is that if there are enemies in the same building and in line of sight of the shooter, he must shoot at these, as they present a more immediate threat.

Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 245)

Apart from the following exceptions, close combat follows the same rules in the main rules section:

Who Can Fight(Main Rulebook, p. 245)

Models whose bases are touching are engaged in close combat. This can only happen once a warrior has charged his enemy, as models are otherwise not allowed to move into contact.

All close quarter fighting is worked out in the Close Combat phase. Regardless of whose turn it is, all models in close combat will fight. A warrior can fight against enemies to his side, front, or rear. In reality the fighters are constantly moving, dodging, and weaving as they struggle to kill their adversaries. Models fighting in close combat do not shoot in the Shooting phase. They are far too busy fighting for their lives. Any very close range shots they are able to make using pistols are treated like close combat weapon attacks (see the Weapons & Amour section).

Which Models Can Fight?(Main Rulebook, p. 245)

A model can fight if its base is touching the base of an enemy model. Even models attacked from the side or rear can fight normally.

If a warrior is touching more than one enemy, he can choose which to attack. If he has more than 1 Attack, he can divide them in any way the player wishes, so long as he makes this clear before rolling to hit.

Hitting the Enemy(Main Rulebook, p. 245)

To determine whether hits are scored, roll a D6 for each model fighting. If a model has more than 1 Attack roll a D6 for each Attack.

The dice roll needed to score a hit on your enemy depends upon the Weapon Skills of the attacker and the foe. Compare the Weapon Skill of the attacker with that of his opponent and consult the To Hit chart on page 69 to find the minimum D6 score needed to hit.

Critical Hits(Main Rulebook, p. 245)

If you roll a 6 when rolling to wound (only in close combat and shooting) you will cause a critical hit, which counts as 2 hits with no armour save. In addition, if the attacker normally needs 6s to wound his target, he cannot cause a critical hit. His opponent is simply too tough to suffer a serious injury at the hands of such a puny creature!

Each warrior may only cause one critical hit during each Close Combat phase (see the Close Combat section for more details), so if he has several attacks, the first 6 rolled to wound causes a critical hit.

Injuries(Main Rulebook, p. 245)

Most warriors have a Wounds characteristic of 1, but some have a value of 2 or more. If the target has more than 1 Wound then deduct 1 from his total each time he suffers a wound. Make a note on his roster sheet. So long as the model has at least 1 wound remaining he may continue to fight.

As soon as a fighter's wounds are reduced to 0, roll to determine the extent of his injuries. The player who inflicted the wound rolls a D6 for the wound that reduced the model to no wounds and for every wound the model receives after that. If a model suffers several wounds in one turn, roll once for each of them and apply the highest result.

Injury Table(Main Rulebook, p. 246)

D6

Result

1-2

Knocked down
The force of the blow knocks the warrior down. Place the model face up to show that he has been knocked down.

3-4

Stunned
The target falls to the ground where he lies wounded and barely conscious. Turn the model face down to show that he has been stunned.

5-6

Out of action
The target has been badly hurt and falls to the ground unconscious. He takes no further part in the game and is immediately removed from the battle.

Knocked Down(Main Rulebook, p. 246)

A warrior who has been knocked down falls to the ground either because of a jarring blow, because he has slipped, or because he has thrown himself to the ground to avoid injury. Turn the model face up to show that he has been knocked down.

Knocked down models may crawl 2" during the Movement phase, but may not fight in close combat, shoot or cast spells.

If he is in base-to-base contact with an enemy, a knocked down model can crawl 2" away only if the enemy is engaged in close combat with another opponent, otherwise he has to stay where he is. In combat, he cannot strike back and the enemy will have a good chance of putting him out of action.

A warrior who has been knocked down may stand up at the start of his next turn. In that turn he may move at half rate, shoot and cast spells, though he cannot charge or run. If he is engaged in close combat, he may not move away and will automatically strike last, irrespective of weapons or Initiative. After this turn, the fighter moves and fights normally, even though he has no wounds left. If the model takes any further wounds, then roll for injury once more, exactly as if the model had just sustained its last wound.

Stunned(Main Rulebook, p. 246)

When a warrior is stunned, he is either badly injured or temporarily knocked out. Turn the model face down to show that he has been stunned. A fighter who is stunned may do nothing at all. The player may turn the model face up in the next Recovery phase, and the warrior is then treated as knocked down.

Out of Action(Main Rulebook, p. 246)

A warrior who is out of action is also out of the game. Remove the model from the tabletop. It's impossible to tell at this point whether the warrior is alive or dead, but for game purposes it makes no difference to the result of the game.

Breaking from Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 246)

A warrior who panics whilst fighting in close combat will break off and make a run for it, as described in the Psychology section.

When a fighter breaks from combat he simply turns and runs. His opponents automatically hit the warrior as he breaks, each inflicting 1 hit which is worked out immediately.

Note that warriors cannot choose to leave a fight voluntarily.

All Alone(Main Rulebook, p. 246)

Being outnumbered and alone is a nerve-racking situation for any warrior.

If your warrior is fighting alone against two or more opponents, and there are no friendly models within 6" (knocked down, stunned or fleeing friends do not count), he must make a test at the end of his Close Combat phase. The test is taken against the model's Leadership on 2D6.

If the warrior scores equal to or under his Leadership then his nerve holds.

If the score is greater than his Leadership, the warrior breaks from combat and runs. Each one of his opponents may make one automatic hit against him as he turns to run. If the model survives, he runs 2D6" directly away from his enemies.

At the start of each of his turns, the warrior must take another Leadership test. If he passes, he stops but can do nothing else during his own turn except cast spells. If he fails or is charged, he runs 2D6" towards the nearest table edge, avoiding any enemy models. If he reaches the table edge before he has managed to recover his nerves, he is removed from combat.

Leaders(Main Rulebook, p. 246)

A warrior within 6" of his leader may use his leader's Leadership value when taking Leadership tests. This represents the leader's ability to encourage his warriors and push them beyond normal limits.

A leader cannot confer this bonus if he is knocked down, stunned or fleeing himself. The sight of your leader running for cover is obviously far from encouraging!

The Rout Test(Main Rulebook, p. 246)

A player must make a Rout test at the start of each of his turns if a quarter (25%) or more of his force is out of action. For example, in a force that has 12 warriors, a test is needed if three or more are out of action. Even forces that are normally immune to psychology (such as Undead) must make Rout tests.

If the Rout test is failed, the force automatically loses the fight. The game ends immediately and surviving warriors retreat from the area. A failed Rout test is the most common way in which a fight ends.

To take a Rout test roll 2D6. If the score is equal to or less than the force leader's Leadership value, the player has passed the test and may continue to fight.

If the force's leader is out of action or stunned, then the player may not use his Leadership to take the test. Instead, use the highest Leadership characteristic amongst any remaining fighters who are not stunned or out of action.

Appendix Four - Rules of Siege(Main Rulebook, p. 247)

This section explains the basic rules you need for fighting siege battles in and around a castle. If you are new to Warhammer, we suggest that you familiarise yourself with the basic game first before trying to fight a siege. As you will notice, there are quite a few rules for sieges and for this reason we suggest that you read the following section carefully.

Anatomy of a Castle(Main Rulebook, p. 247)

In the Warhammer world, kings, barons, dukes and lords spend many years and vast fortunes building impregnable fortresses. The variation between the fortifications of different races is almost endless, but all have some things in common. There are three main parts that make up a castle: the walls, the towers and the gate.

Walls(Main Rulebook, p. 247)

Solidly built of stone or brick, walls form the main body of any castle or fortress. In a game of Warhammer, the walls require a rampart that is roughly 50mm (2") wide. With a rampart of this size you will have enough room to line up two rows of troops against each other, and larger models such as Trolls will be able to fit on as well.

A length of wall between two towers is called a wall section. Each section is considered to be a separate target for the purposes of the rules. Very long walls will obviously consist of more than one section.

Wall sections are taken to be roughly 12" (30cm) long. Fortunately most model castles are made of conveniently sized pieces. Games Workshop produces a castle which has exactly the right dimensions for playing siege battles.

Any troops on the walls count as being in hard cover as detailed earlier in this rulebook, so any missile fire against troops on the ramparts suffers a -2 to hit penalty.

Troops on a wall must be placed in single file, which will leave enough room for the attackers to be placed on the wall as well. Note that this is a very important rule! You may place as many models as you wish on the walls as long as they are in a single file. Place any defenders on the wall so that there is roughly a 1" gap between them and the battlements. Any troops assaulting the walls will be placed in this gap facing the defenders.

Positioning Troops on Castle Walls

Towers(Main Rulebook, p. 247)

Towers are the strongest point of a castle. They can be easily defended even if the walls of the castle have been demolished and, because they command a view over the entire tabletop, they make ideal positions for archers and war machines.

You can place as many models on a tower as you wish within the limitations of the space available. Models that are going on top of the tower can simply be placed there, but if troops are going inside the tower (to shoot from windows for example) it is more practical to remove the models from the table and make a note of how many there are and where they are shooting from. You can fit as many models inside the tower as you can place on top.

A single war machine along with its crew occupies the entire top level of the tower. Note that you cannot move war machines if they are on the top level of a tower, except to turn them to face the direction in which they are going to fire. Troops occupying towers can shoot in any direction, either over the ramparts or through arrow slits.

Troops on the top level of a tower are vulnerable to missile fire, but they do receive the benefit of being in hard cover because they are protected by the ramparts and so are -2 to hit with missiles. Troops inside a tower are safe from harm except, obviously, if the entire tower collapses.

Gates(Main Rulebook, p. 247)

In many ways, gates are the weakest part of any fortification. Although they are normally made of iron, wood or steel and guarded by massive bastions, it is still much easier to break through a gate then it is to batter down the walls of a fortress. To combat this, most gates are flanked by two towers and guarded by the best troops available to the fortress commander.

At least two models are needed to open or close the fortress gates from the inside. This can be done in their Movement phase, and the models opening or closing the gate suffer no penalties for their movement. Gates cannot be opened from the outside. Your force must break in!

Moving Through a Gate(Main Rulebook, p. 248)

A single unit of any size can move through a gateway in its Movement phase with no reduction to its movement. The unit doesn't need to change formation as it is presumed that it pours through the gate and reforms on the other side.

It is not uncommon for the front of a unit to end up on one side of the gate and the back of the unit to be on the other. This is fine. Place the part of the unit that has passed through the gate on the far side and leave the part that is still to pass through on the other. As long as the ranks on both sides are in contact with the gate, this is perfectly acceptable. Depending upon the size of the gate, some larger models, such as Giants and Dragons, may be too large to pass through the gate so they will obviously not be able to get into the fortress that way!

Courtyard(Main Rulebook, p. 248)

The courtyard is the area that is contained by the fortress walls. All the normal Warhammer rules apply for models who are in the courtyard. Models may move onto the walls and towers from the courtyard (this will be explained later). Any troops in the courtyard can move freely up to the towers and ramparts, provided these are not held by the enemy.

Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 248)

Models defending a castle are organised into units just as they would be in a normal Warhammer battle. In theory, a unit in a siege battle can be as large or as small as you like, but you will find that between five and twelve models is the most convenient size.

All troops (including the besiegers) can adopt a skirmish formation when deployed on the ramparts or towers to aid with movement. The rules for skirmishing are repeated here for your convenience. Some exceptions to the normal skirmish rules will apply, as noted below.

Skirmish Formation(Main Rulebook, p. 248)

If you decide to deploy your troops as skirmishers, the models are placed up to 2" apart. Should the unit be split up as a result of casualties, or individuals have become divided from it for some reason, the player must rectify this situation during his next Movement phase.

Shooting at Troops in Skirmish Formation(Main Rulebook, p. 248)

There are no penalties for shooting at troops in skirmish formation who are on the ramparts or towers. Being in skirmish formation merely enables troops to move around the castle with relative ease.

Movement on the Walls and Ramparts(Main Rulebook, p. 248)

When moving onto fortress ramparts or inside towers, simply follow the normal Warhammer rules for movement. Remember that there is room for only one rank of troops on each wall section, so if the rampart is already completely occupied, there will be no room for any extra models. However, a unit may pass another unit during the Movement phase as long as all the troops who are on the wall end the phase in single file. Troops can freely move from a castle tower or a wall section to any adjacent wall section or castle tower if they have enough movement left available to them.

March Moves(Main Rulebook, p. 248)

The proximity of the enemy does not affect march moves on ramparts or towers in any way.

Movement onto the Ramparts or a Tower from the Courtyard(Main Rulebook, p. 248)

A unit may move from the courtyard to the ramparts or onto a tower during its Movement phase if it can move into base contact with the wall or tower.

Models in the unit are placed anywhere within the tower or along the rampart that the player wishes. If there is insufficient room to move all the models in the unit onto the rampart or tower, the rest of them are left in the courtyard in base contact with the tower or wall, and are still considered to be part of their unit. They must be moved onto the rampart or tower as soon as there is sufficient room.

No large creatures, such as Trolls or Ogres, may enter a tower, though they may move onto the rampart. Cavalry cannot move onto a tower or rampart for obvious reasons!

Movement from the Walls and Towers into the Courtyard(Main Rulebook, p. 249)

Units may also move from walls or a tower to the courtyard in a single Movement phase, and they may be placed in any formation normally allowed to them. Moving from the ramparts or from a tower into the courtyard costs half the movement of a unit. Measure any remaining movement from the base of the wall or tower. If there is insufficient room in the courtyard for all the models (because of enemy troops, for example), then any models that do not fit must be left on the ramparts or the tower. Note that no models may move from the ramparts to the courtyard if any models in the unit are engaged in close combat.

Movement Outside the Castle and in the Courtyard(Main Rulebook, p. 249)

Movement outside the fortress and in the courtyard is done exactly as described earlier in this rulebook. Note that troops outside a castle may march even if there are enemies within 8" of them, as long as these enemies are on the ramparts, towers or on the other side of a wall.

Assaulting the Wall(Main Rulebook, p. 249)

It is a brave commander that orders his troops to assault the ramparts of a castle! The majority of his men will be killed by incoming enemy fire, boiling oil and rocks poured down the walls. Fighting for control of the ramparts is a bloody affair, where the lives of brave warriors are lost by the score.

Despite this, many generals of the Warhammer world enjoy these bloody spectacles. These commanders are always eager to sacrifice troops in order to witness a magnificent battle. Bretonnian dukes in particular are always keen to launch their stalwart men-at-arms against castle walls. Any survivors are, of course, eligible to be Knights Errant! The following rules apply when assaulting the ramparts.

Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 249)

Troops may declare their charges against a castle as if it were an enemy model. They may move up to double their normal movement to reach a wall section, tower or gate. If they can reach the wall and are equipped with ladders, grappling hooks or ropes, or are in a siege tower, they may assault the ramparts in the Close Combat phase. Otherwise they can make close combat attacks against the castle itself as explained later.

Charge Reactions(Main Rulebook, p. 249)

Troops defending walls can declare normal charge reactions, and can use boiling oil and rocks in a stand & shoot reaction, unless the chargers are using a siege tower. The defenders can, still use normal missile weapons, such as bows, etc, against a charge from a siege tower. The defenders may also choose the Man the Walls! charge reaction.

Means of Assault(Main Rulebook, p. 249)

Generally speaking, attackers may use ladders, grappling hooks and siege towers to assault walls. Note that towers are too high to be assaulted with these.

Ladders

As soon as a unit is within base contact of a wall, it may erect any ladders it has. This does not reduce its movement in any way, and the troops may assault the rampart during the same turn. Towers are too high to be assaulted with ladders.

One model per ladder may move onto the ramparts at the start of the Close Combat phase. These models are placed directly above the point where they were on the ground. You may choose any model from the unit to scale the ladder. This allows powerful characters to attempt to take the ramparts, where an ordinary trooper might fail. If the rampart onto which the models move is occupied by the enemy, these models are now in close combat. The defenders will strike first (even if using double-handed weapons) and have the advantage of the defended obstacle bonus, meaning that attackers only hit them on natural 6s. This makes assaulting walls very difficult indeed! Note that these penalties apply each turn unless the attacking model manages to seize the ramparts.

Grappling Hooks

Once a model with a grappling hook is in base contact with the wall he may throw the grappling hook. This is done automatically as soon as the model moves into base contact with the wall. This does not reduce his movement in any way, and he can assault the ramparts during the same turn.

A model equipped with a grappling hook and rope may climb up onto the ramparts. Any model climbing a rope is placed on the rampart at the end of their Move phase. This model is then placed directly above the point where he was when he was on the ground.

If the wall is occupied by the enemy, then they are now in close combat. Models defending the wall strike first (even if they are using double-handed weapons) and have the advantage of the defended obstacle bonus, ie, the attacker hits them only on natural 6s. Note that these penalties apply each turn unless the attacking model manages to seize the ramparts.

Siege Towers

Once a siege tower is in base contact with a castle, any troops from the regiment pushing it can assault the walls. Up to two models can attack the ramparts from a siege tower at any time. Place these models on the drawbridge of the siege tower. The player can choose which models from the unit pushing the tower can assault the walls. This allows the best fighters a chance to clear the ramparts for their comrades.

The siege tower negates all benefits that the defender normally enjoys, so chargers can strike first and suffer no penalties to their to hit rolls, for example. This makes siege towers extremely useful in an assault!

After the initial turn when the siege tower charged in, the attacker may replace any casualties in the normal way, so there will always be two models assaulting the wall from the tower. These models can be freely chosen from the unit.

Man the Walls!(Main Rulebook, p. 250)

Models defending the walls against an assault may make a special Man the Walls! charge reaction. This reaction allows any unengaged models defending the ramparts to move up to 2" towards the enemy after the enemy has assaulted the walls and placed its models on the ramparts. This movement is done out of the normal movement sequence, immediately before the Close Combat phase. This rule represents the defenders throwing their forces against the enemy's assault. The troops may also use rocks or cauldrons of boiling oil (though not in assaults by siege towers).

Manning the Walls: The defenders have rushed to intercept the attackers, each defender moving 2" in the directions shown.

Seizing the Ramparts(Main Rulebook, p. 250)

The attacker is deemed to have seized the castle ramparts as soon as his troops win a round of close combat against the defenders. The attacker can now move the whole of his unit, space permitting, onto the ramparts to fight against any defenders they wish, suffering no to hit penalties and striking first as if they were charging.

Undefended Ramparts(Main Rulebook, p. 250)

If a wall has no defenders at all, any unit with ladders, grappling hooks or siege towers may move as many models onto the ramparts during its Movement phase as it is physically possible to fit in single file.

Break Tests on Assaulting the Ramparts(Main Rulebook, p. 250)

When fighting on towers or ramparts Break tests are taken on the unmodified Leadership of the unit. Ranks and standards have no effect on the test, so it is the side who suffered the most wounds in a combat who has to take the Break test. The only thing that affects a unit's Leadership in a Break test is the higher Leadership of the character leading them, or their General being within 12". Note that the number of wounds caused in close combat will not modify the Leadership score.

These rules apply for all fighting on the ramparts and towers, including assaults by siege towers, troops scaling the walls with ladders, etc.

Note that troops (such as Skeletons) who suffer extra casualties due to losing rounds of combat also lose one model for every wound they lost the combat by.

If both sides suffer the same number of casualties, then the combat is a draw and no tests are taken by either side. No other factors, such as Musicians, affect the result. As the chances of a regiment breaking are less than usual, battles inside castles tend to last longer. This makes assaults bloody and dangerous affairs - just as they are in real life.

A unit that is charged in the courtyard while it still has models on the ramparts or inside a tower may not claim a bonus for any extra ranks. The unit is considered to be too disorganised to take advantage of this rule.

Pursuit(Main Rulebook, p. 250)

Troops assaulting the walls with siege towers, ladders Or grappling hooks who are broken in close combat flee directly away from the castle along with the rest of their regiment. This is worked out exactly like a normal flee move, ie, the unit moves 2D6" away from the castle. Note that the defenders of the wall may not pursue in this case.

For any other fighting on the ramparts, roll the flee and pursuit moves as normal. If the pursuer beats the score of the fleeing troops, the fleeing troops are destroyed. Simply remove the casualties and leave the pursuers in their place - they catch up with the fleeing troops and hack them down where they stand. If the fleeing troops manage to beat the score of the pursuers, they may move into the courtyard (remember that fleeing into a courtyard costs them half their movement) or into any adjacent wall section or tower. Do not move the pursuers. If there is nowhere for the troops to flee to then the broken units are automatically destroyed.

Fighting in the Courtyard or Outside the Fortress(Main Rulebook, p. 251)

When troops are on ground level, the usual Warhammer rules apply. As you can see, it is very important for the attacker to demolish the walls as he will be able to use the bonuses he gains from his superior numbers, extra ranks and standards. The defenders will stand little or no chance under such circumstances!

Charging from the Courtyard onto a Tower or Rampart(Main Rulebook, p. 251)

Troops in the courtyard may charge enemies on the ramparts or in a tower as long as they can see them and can move into base contact.

Work out the charges as you would in a normal game of Warhammer. If the enemies on the wall or tower are unengaged they may claim the defended obstacle bonus (attackers need 6s to hit) as they are defending the doors of the towers or stairs up to the ramparts. In the case of towers, up to two models per side may fight across a door. If the enemy models are already engaged, then the chargers may attack them normally. Place the models on the flank of the troops they wish to attack.

Note that you may not charge troops on walls if there is not enough room for them to move into. The walls are already far too crammed with fighting men.

Charging from the Ramparts or a Tower into the Courtyard(Main Rulebook, p. 251)

Any units on the ramparts or a tower may charge any enemies they can see in the courtyard. Work out the charges as you would in a normal Warhammer game, remember though that moving from the ramparts to the courtyard costs a unit half its movement. Measure the distance of the movement from the base of the wall. The charging unit may assume any formation it wishes, as long as it fits into the courtyard. If the charged unit elects to flee, they move 2D6" away from the chargers as normal, and the charging unit is placed in the courtyard as if it had moved there normally (see above).

Attacking a Castle(Main Rulebook, p. 251)

Some races of the Warhammer world build their castles from materials other than stone. Wood Elf forts are living structures with huge trees making up the walls and their branches serving as the battlements. In the darkness of the Realm of Chaos, the strongholds of the arrogant champions of the Dark Gods are made from metals such as bronze and brass, or even more exotic materials like glass or smoke. Beastmen carve their crude forts from stone to protect their holy herdstones and Dwarfs hew their strongholds from the very bones of the earth, constructing their battlements and ramparts on top of towering mountain cliffs. No matter what material the fortress is made out of, the following rules apply:

Shooting at the Towers, Walls and Gates(Main Rulebook, p. 251)

Each tower, gate and wall section counts as an individual target for any enemy attacks, be they shooting, magic, or physical blows. Note that each gateway is situated in a wall section and these are separate targets.

All hits against towers, gates and walls are resolved by using the Damage charts on page 254.

To find out what damage the attack has caused, simply roll the number of wounds/hits the attack causes and add the Strength of the attack to the result. Consult the Damage chart for the appropriate section of castle to find what result the attack will have. As you will see, only very powerful attacks have a chance of damaging the castle.

For example: A cannonball from an Empire Great Cannon hits a tower. To see how much damage it does, the player rolls a D6 (the number of wounds that the attack normally causes) and adds the Strength of the attack. which is 10 in this case. He then consults the Tower Damage chart.

If the castle is hit by a stone thrower or some similar weapon, the castle and any troops that are under the template are automatically hit if the central hole covers any part of the castle. If the central hole does not cover the castle but other parts of the template do, the castle is hit on a D6 roll of 4+.

In the case of a unit armed with missile troops, count only one hit which the unit causes (the one with the highest Strength).

Shooting at the Gates(Main Rulebook, p. 252)

All the normal rules for walls are also applied to the wall section that contains the gateway. Note that if the wall section where the gate is situated is destroyed, the gateway is also demolished.

You can only shoot at the gate itself with cannons and other weapons that have a flat trajectory. Randomise any shots aimed at the gate between the gate and the wall.

D6

Result

1-4

Hits the wall

5-6

Hits the gate

Cannons(Main Rulebook, p. 252)

A cannonball is fired over a fairly flat trajectory, unlike a stone thrower's rock which has a more curved trajectory. Because of this, cannonballs will, strangely enough, tend to smash into tall obstacles like castles rather than fly over them! It is, after all, quite difficult to miss a castle.

To represent this, cannons (including organ guns, but not earthshaker cannons or mortars) will always automatically hit castle walls (provided they have sufficient range). The shooter must still roll the Artillery dice to see whether a misfire has occurred.

Cannons may also pack in an extra charge of powder in an attempt to knock the fortress walls down quicker. This gives the cannon +1 to the damage it causes, but there is a risk involved. Stuffing a cannon full of black powder is extremely dangerous. To represent this, the shooter must roll the Artillery dice twice each time he attempts to shoot to determine whether a misfire has occurred.

Attacking the Castle in Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 252)

Generally speaking, the walls, gates and towers of a castle are far too massive and solid for ordinary troops to knock down, but there are exceptions. Some exceedingly powerful models may be able to knock down castle walls, etc, due to their sheer brutality and awesome strength. Greater Daemons, Dragons and Giants, for example, are so big and powerful that they pose a serious threat to even a well-constructed fortress.

Models may make one attack (and one attack only, regardless of the number of attacks they normally have) against a wall, tower or gateway in each Close Combat phase. Not surprisingly, any part of the castle will be hit automatically. The model must, of course, be in base contact with its target. Note that chariots may not attack castle walls, towers or gates, as they would undoubtedly be smashed to smithereens. The same also applies to Skaven Doomwheels and Screaming Bells.

Determine damage normally, ie, roll the number of hits/wounds the attack causes (normally this will be 1), consult the appropriate Damage chart, and apply the given result. Any bonuses from magic weapons apply.

In general, close combat attacks are not powerful enough to tear down walls or shake towers, but they are useful for breaking down gates and attacking structures already weakened by earlier bombardments.

Castles and Spells(Main Rulebook, p. 252)

Castles cannot be damaged by spells - they are normally, though, protected by defensive spells, prayers, runes, and their massive size! Generally speaking, spells are best targeted at troops defending the walls.

Damage Charts(Main Rulebook, p. 253)

You will notice that most of the results on these charts will cause modifiers to further dice rolls. These can be marked in some way, such as by placing a piece of cotton wool or loose rubble by the affected section to represent the damage. Note that any modifiers on the tables below are cumulative! This is the only way to destroy a castle, by building up the damage gradually until the walls collapse, towers topple and the gates are broken.

Wall Damage Chart

Damage

Effect

2-12

No effect.

13-14

Shaken. Add +1 to any further rolls on this chart.

15-16

Severely Shaken. Troops on this section of the wall cannot shoot during their next turn on a D6 roll of 4+. Roll separately for each unit. Add +1 to any further rolls.

17-18

Rampart Destroyed. Any unit on this section of the wall suffers D6 S4 hits. Any troops which are on this section of the wall are no longer in hard cover. Add +1 to any further rolls. If you roll this result again there is no further effect apart from the cumulative +1 modifier.

19

Breach! The attack rips a massive hole in the wall. Add +1 to any further rolls that are made on this chart. If you roll this result again there is no further effect apart from the cumulative +1 modifier.

20+

Collapse! Wall collapses. Any troops on the wall take a single S5 hit. All troops that are within 4" take 1 S3 hit. The rubble counts as a defended obstacle and hard cover.

Tower Damage Chart

Damage

Effect

2-12

No effect.

13-14

Shaken. Add +1 to any further rolls on this chart.

15-16

Severely shaken. Any troops in the tower may not shoot on a D6 roll of 4+ during their next turn. Roll separately for each unit. Add +1 to any further rolls

17-18

Rampart Destroyed. Any models on the top of the tower suffer D6 S4 hits. Any troops at the top of the tower are no longer in hard cover. Add +1 to any further rolls. If you roll this result again there is no further effect apart from the cumulative +1 modifier.

19

Partial Collapse. Any troops in the tower must roll under their Initiative or suffer a S5 hit. Add + 1 to any further rolls. If you roll this result again there is no further effect apart from cumulative +1 modifier.

20+

Collapse! Roll a D6:
1-3: The tower partially collapses as above. In addition all troops within 4" of the tower suffer 1 S3 hit.
4-6: The entire tower collapses! All troops inside suffer 1 S5 hit. All models within 4" suffer 1 S3 hit. The ruined tower counts as hard cover and a defended obstacle.

Gate Damage Chart

If the gates are made of metal, apply a -1 modifier to any results.

Damage

Effect

2-10

No effect. The gate survives the attack and does not budge.

11-12

Crack! The gate splinters. Add +1 to further rolls on this chart.

13-14

Crunch! The gate groans under the pressure. Add +2 to any further rolls that are made on this chart.

15

Gate Broken. The way to the fortress is free. However, some pieces of the gate remain, so troops can only move through at half speed. You can attack the gate again in the next Close Combat phase to destroy it completely, in which case add +3 to the dice roll, along with any other bonuses accumulated.

16+

Crush! The gate is utterly destroyed. The way to the fortress is now open!

Preparing Your Army for a Siege(Main Rulebook, p. 254)

Choosing Your Force

When you are choosing an army for a siege battle simply choose a force from the relevant army list that is of an appropriate points value for each scenario. However, there are some extra restrictions that will apply to the choices from your army list and any scenario you are playing will clearly tell you these.

To choose an army for a siege game, refer to the Siege scenario on page 259-260 and to the relevant Warhammer Army book for your army. Note that you must always follow the normal quotas for army selection and any restrictions given in the Army book will still apply.

Siege Equipment

Siege equipment is a very important part of any siege battle. Both the attacker and defender are allowed to use a number of new items in a siege, which are described below. You may spend any amount of points on siege equipment when taking part in a siege.

Siege equipment is divided between equipment for the besieged force and equipment for the besieging force. Note that you may not have more than one of the following pieces of equipment in a unit: siege towers, log rams and battering rams. You cannot have a log ram and a battering ram in the same unit.

Equipment of the Besieged Force(Main Rulebook, p. 254)

Reinforced Gate(Main Rulebook, p. 254)

As any fortress commander will tell you, the weakest part of a fortress is its gate. For this reason many races will build their gates from the strongest and most enduring materials available to them. This can include replacing wooden gates with iron ones, building several gates within the gateway, or constructing a portcullis. You can represent this with suitable modelling or simply tell your opponent before battle commences that the gate is reinforced.

If the fortress gate is reinforced, a -1 penalty on the Damage chart applies. So, to get a Crash! result and smash your way into the castle, you would need to get a total of 17+ on a reinforced gate instead of 16+.

Points cost: 20 points

Boiling Oil(Main Rulebook, p. 254)

One of the most effective ways of deterring persistent attackers from scaling fortress walls is to drop nasty and unpleasant things onto them.

Boiling oil scalds unprotected flesh, soaks through armour and clothing and causes excruciating wounds. It is also sticky, smelly and extremely painful. In other words, it's the perfect way to deter attackers from taking your fortress.

As well as oil, the different races in Warhammer use molten bronze, boiling blood, alchemical fire and even oxtail soup! Of course, during the long history of sieges many other things have also been used, such as hot water,
lime, heated sand and lead.

Cauldrons and Units

You may only buy one cauldron per infantry unit you have in your army. One cauldron has enough boiling oil to last for the duration of the entire battle.

Cauldrons can be moved around the ramparts at half the normal speed of the regiment moving it. The unit may not move a cauldron and pour the boiling oil down the wall during the same turn.

If a unit panics and flees they will abandon the cauldron, which is assumed to be knocked over in the process. In this case, remove the cauldron model.

Using Boiling Oil

This can be used in the Shooting phase just like any other missile weapon. You can declare a stand & shoot reaction with boiling oil against troops climbing up using ladders or ropes.

Models that are defending a wall section or tower may pour boiling oil over their enemies in their own turn provided that they are not engaged in close combat.

It requires two unengaged models to use the cauldron of boiling oil, and they may not use any other missile weapons during the same Shooting phase.

To use boiling oil take the circular 3" template and position it directly below the cauldron and in front of the wall as shown in the diagram on page 254. Any model whose base even touches the template is hit. No rolls to hit are needed. As the cauldron uses a template, the characters can be saved by a successful "Look out, Sir!" roll.

Using Boiling Oil: Boiling oil is poured over an enemy unit. All models touched by the template are hit.

All models hit suffer a S5 hit with no armour save possible. Against boiling oil, molten metal, etc, the crew of a battering ram receive a 4+ special save, as the mantlet of a battering ram has been specifically designed against such attacks. Boiling oil can only be used every other turn - it takes time to heat and fill a cauldron!

Points cost: 25 points per cauldron

Some races have created other, even more unpleasant things to use to repel besiegers. All the rules for boiling oil apply with the following exceptions:

Boiling Blood

Dark Elves have a particularly nasty way of repelling attackers. Using slaves and captives as donors, the Naggarothi fill their cauldrons with blood mixed with corrosive poisons. These are then heated up, laced with even more poison and poured down the fortress walls.

Troops that suffer casualties from boiling blood must make an immediate Panic test.

Boiling Blood: 30 points per cauldron. Dark Elves only.

Molten Metal

Dwarfs and Chaos Dwarfs use molten bronze, hot lead and other heavy metals instead of oil. as their mountain homes are rich with metal ore, whilst oil is hard to come by. Any molten metal uses exactly the same rules as boiling oil, except that its hits are resolved with a Strength of 6.

Molten Metal: 30 points per cauldron. Dwarfs and Chaos Dwarfs only.

Alchemical Fire

High Elves have perfected an arcane formula for an extremely lethal substance called Deathfire, or Ielthan in the Elven tongue. It is Strength 5, causes D3 wounds and inflicts double damage on flammable creatures.

Alchemical Fire: 30 points per cauldron. High Elves only.

Rocks(Main Rulebook, p. 255)

Rocks are stones small enough for men to pick up and throw. They may be thrown singly, or a whole basket can be tipped onto the attackers. More technically advanced races use machines to drop huge boulders onto their attackers.

Models defending a wall section or tower can drop rocks in their own turn if not engaged in close combat. Rocks are thrown during the Shooting phase and can be used instead of any other missile weapons a model might have. Use the model's basic BS without any modifiers for range. Any enemy unit with models in base contact with the same section of wall or tower may be targeted.

Note that rocks can be used in a Man the Walls! reaction against enemies charging up ladders and ropes. A rock hits with Strength 4, causes 1 wound and has the standard -1 save modifier.

If you are choosing to arm a unit with rocks then all the models in the unit must be equipped with them, otherwise you cannot include any
rocks in that unit at all.

Points cost: 1 point per model.

Equipment of the Besieging Force(Main Rulebook, p. 255)

Log Rams(Main Rulebook, p. 255)

Log rams are massive tree trunks used to knock down castle gates. Easy to make and use, the log ram is the ideal weapon for the besieging General on a tight budget.

Log Rams in Units

At least four man-sized models are needed to carry a log ram. Large creatures, such as Ogres, count as two man-sized creatures. You may only buy one log ram for each infantry unit in your army. Units with log rams move as normal, so they may march, wheel and turn, etc.

A unit carrying a log ram may charge against a gate, wall or a tower, and make a single attack during each Close Combat phase. The Strength of the attack is equal to the number of models in the regiment carrying the ram, up to a maximum of 8. Log rams cause D6 wounds per attack. Only one ram at a time may attack a gate.

A regiment carrying a log ram fights normally in close combat, although a log ram cannot be used in mêlées at all. A unit can abandon it at any time it wishes (if the troops manage to break down the gate for example). Put the ram on the ground or remove the model.

Position the log ram at the front of the unit, in the centre of it, or as centrally as you can (see the diagram). Any number of models are permitted in the regiment carrying the ram, although at least four are needed to carry the ram. The regiment still counts its rank bonus as normal.

Positioning a Log Ram: Because this unit is only three models wide, the log ram has had to be placed slightly off centre.

Psychology

A unit with a log ram will abandon it if they flee because of panic, terror, a failed Break test, etc. Leave the log ram where the unit failed its test. Another regiment may pick up the abandoned ram by moving into base contact with it. Place the ram in the middle of the unit as normal. A unit which is subject to stupidity may not carry a log ram.

Points cost: 10 points for each log ram.

Battering Rams(Main Rulebook, p. 256)

This is a larger version of the log ram, with the log suspended on a wheeled frame. It is ideal for breaking down fortress gates and is covered with a wooden roof to give protection against arrows and other nasties the enemy might pour down the walls. The heads of battering rams are often made to resemble ferocious creatures such as bulls, wolves or Dragons. The same rules apply to battering rams as to log rams, with the following exceptions:

Battering Rams in Units

A battering ram is positioned in a unit as shown above. Any number of models are permitted in the unit pushing a battering ram, although at least six models are needed to move it. The unit still counts its rank bonus as normal. Due to the weight of the ram, any unit pushing it suffers a -1 Movement penalty.

Positioning a Battering Ram: When a unit contains a battering ram, form the troops around it as shown above. It is then counted as part of the unit.

Shooting

The battering ram's mantlet has been specifically designed to provide protection for the unit from things such crossbow bolts, arrows, dropped missiles, etc. All missile fire targeted against a unit that is using battering ram is randomised using the following table. This represents the troops huddling behind the mantlet.

D6

Result

1-2

Battering ram

3-6

Unit

A battering ram has the following profile, and it can be attacked in close combat.

MWSBSSTWIALd
ProfileAs crew--6-875---

Points cost: 50 points for each battering ram.

Ladders(Main Rulebook, p. 256)

Ladders are used by all the Warhammer races. They are handy for stealing apples, little paint jobs and scaling fortress walls. Scaling ladders are equipped with hooks on the top and spikes at the bottom to wedge them firmly in place.

Ladders are used for assaulting the walls. See the rules on page 250.

Carrying Ladders

A regiment can carry any number of ladders. Troops carrying them may move at full speed unless there are less than four models carrying the ladder, in which case they move at half speed. At least two models are required to carry a ladder, so, if the unit suffers casualties, it must abandon any ladders it is incapable of carrying. Place the ladders on the ground at the spot where they were abandoned.

The unit may also drop ladders voluntarily, usually doing this to abandon ladders that are slowing the regiment down.

Units subject to stupidity may not carry ladders, and no large creatures, such as Ogres, may use them to assault the walls. Skirmishing units may not carry ladders.

If a unit carrying a ladder flees for any reason (failed Break tests, panic, etc they have to abandon the ladder at the point where they fled. Any unit may pick up the ladder simply by moving any model into contact with it.

Points cost: 5 points per ladder.

Grappling Hooks(Main Rulebook, p. 256)

Grappling hooks with ropes are used by every race in the Warhammer world. They consist of a metal hook with a rope attached, often wound with steel cord to prevent it from being cut whilst the attacker is climbing up.

Skirmishers, such as Skaven Gutter Runners, have made great use of grappling hooks in the past. The hooks are particularly suitable for smaller regiments for whom heavy and clumsy ladders would be impractical.

Carrying Grappling Hooks

Any infantry model that can skirmish may carry a grappling hook and rope. All models are restricted to one hook and rope each. This does not affect their movement in any way.

Scaling Walls

Only one model may climb up the rope to the battlements per grappling hook. This makes them less useful for big regiments, but small units of elite troops will find hooks and ropes ideal. See the special rules for assaulting ramparts for details.

You must equip all the models in a unit with grappling hooks; you cannot choose to provide only part of the unit with them. Only units that can skirmish may buy grappling hooks and ropes.

Points cost: 1 point per grappling book and rope.

Mantlets(Main Rulebook, p. 257)

Mantlets are wooden barriers, about the height of a man, which are often used by besiegers to shield them from missile fire.

By and large, mantlets are too cumbersome to be used by marching armies, so they are not available in standard Warhammer games where two armies move rapidly over large distances. They are, however, used extensively in siege warfare and are excellent for giving cover to archers so that they can pin down any missile troops on fortress walls.

Only infantry units that are equipped with missile weapons may use mantlets. You must buy them for all the models in a unit; you cannot choose to give them to part of a unit.

Moving with Mantlets

Troops carrying mantlets may not march, charge or move-and-fire. However, mantlets may be deployed 2D6" closer to the castle than any other troops. This represents the ability of troops to advance closer with mantlets because enemy fire is ineffective against them at long range. This can allow archers to get relatively close to the castle at the start of the battle.

Troops do not abandon mantlets voluntarily (wisely putting their safety above other things), but if they flee for some reason (such as when they have failed a Panic or Break test) the mantlets are thrown aside and abandoned. Remove the mantlets from the table.

Shooting

Troops protected by a mantlet are considered to be in hard cover and are -2 to hit with missile weapons. Note that troops may not claim the defended obstacle bonus when fighting from behind a mantlet.

Points cost: 1 point per model in the regiment.

Siege Towers(Main Rulebook, p. 257)

Siege towers are the most effective way of assaulting the walls of a castle. The siege tower itself gives protection against enemy missile fire while it approaches the castle, and saves the troops from the dangerous prospect of assaulting the walls with ladders.

Siege towers, constructed by almost all races in the Warhammer world, are extremely common. They are often made of wood, though some armies use more exotic materials: Undead siege towers are grisly constructions made of bones and evil spells, Chaos Dwarfs build their siege towers with a reinforced chassis of bronze and the Wood Elves bring to the battlefield wondrous living trees bristling with warriors to assault enemy castles. Whatever the appearance of a siege tower, the following rules apply:

Siege Towers and Troops

Any infantry regiment with at least ten models can have one siege tower. Up to eight models in the regiment may be placed on the siege tower itself, ready to assault the walls. The rest are placed behind and around the tower pushing it. Troops on the siege tower can use their missile weapons in the Shooting phase as normal, but do not count towards the total number of models needed to push the tower.

Siege Tower and Units: Troops pushing a siege tower can be placed around it in any formation you wish.

Movement

The unit pushing the tower is placed on and around it to show their efforts at pushing and dragging it forward. Note that a unit pushing a siege tower can never have a rank bonus as it is considered to be far too disorganised to fight effectively in close combat. If the tower's unit becomes engaged in a mêlée, only troops in base contact with an enemy model may fight.

After deployment, but before the beginning of the battle, the tower may move 2D6" towards the castle. This represents how easy it is for a siege tower to advance under a hail of missiles compared to the difficulty faced by normal troops.

The siege tower moves at the same speed as the regiment pushing it (4" for Men, for example). Siege towers may never be moved at march speed, but they can make an assault against the walls at double speed. The tower may not turn or wheel, it always moves straight forward.

The minimum number of crew needed to move a siege tower at full speed is ten. If a unit of ten or less models pushing the tower takes any casualties, the tower's movement is reduced by -1" for each casualty suffered. If the unit pushing the tower suffers enough casualties to reduce it to six or less models, the siege tower cannot be moved at all.

For example, ten Men may push a siege tower up to 4" per turn. Nine Men who are pushing the tower can move it up to 3" per turn, etc. If there are less than seven Men left, the siege tower cannot move at all.

Attacking the Siege Tower

Models in base contact with the siege tower may attack it if they wish. Any close combat attacks against the tower hit automatically. Resolve damage as normal.

Shooting

Because the siege tower is so much larger than the unit that is surrounding it, it can be singled out as a target by troops firing missile weapons. The siege tower and any models on board are considered to be a single target when working out missile fire. Any troops shooting at the tower also gain the standard +1 bonus for shooting at a large target. Randomise any hits according to the following chart.

D6

Result

1-2

Crew

3-6

Siege tower

If the tower is destroyed all models on board must roll under their Initiative or suffer 1 S5 hit. Survivors should be placed where the siege tower was destroyed. These troops and the unit that was pushing the siege tower may now reform into any formation they like.

War Machines and the Siege Tower

When you are firing at the siege tower with a weapon or making an attack that uses a template, it is possible to hit the tower and the crew depending on where the template is placed. Position the template normally. Each part of the crew and the tower is treated as a separate target. Weapons such as cannons and bolt throwers will only strike the siege tower itself.

Flee and Pursuit

If the unit pushing a siege tower flees, then the tower will be abandoned until another unit turns up to push it. A unit that is pushing a siege tower may never pursue, even if it consists of frenzied troops such as Witch Elves.

Assault

The siege tower always charges at double the speed of the troops pushing it, though it may be slowed by the effect of casualties as explained earlier. This represents the impetus and effort of the unit pushing the siege tower once they are close to the fortress.

During the turn that you get a siege tower into base contact with the castle, you may attack the ramparts. Up to two models per turn may attack from the tower. Note that if there were no troops aboard the tower when it came into contact with the wall, you must spend one turn moving models up the tower's ladders before you can attack.

Troops attacking from a siege tower suffer no penalties when attacking troops occupying walls. They may also charge the defenders in the same turn in which the tower came into contact with the wall, and will strike first as normal. The defenders may still stand & shoot or Man the Walls!, but cannot use boiling oil or rocks. In subsequent turns, you can bring extra models into battle if you suffer casualties, but neither side counts as charging. You can move any models from the unit pushing the siege tower.

Points cost: 100 pts per siege tower.

You may have a maximum of one siege tower per 1,000 points of the value of your army.

MWSBSSTWIALd
Profile*0--741--

* Same as the crew pushing the tower.

Siege Equipment(Main Rulebook, p. 258)

Purchasing Siege Equipment

In a siege, both the besiegers and the besieged may spend up to any amount of the army's points value on siege engines. These are chosen from the list below.

Using Siege Equipment

Siege engines can be used in the Siege scenario.

Besieging Player's Equipment

Siege Tower (100 pts)
Any infantry regiment that consists of at least ten models in the besieger's army can have one siege tower. You may have a maximum of one siege tower per 1,000 points, eg, a 3,000 points army could have maximum of 3.

Battering Ram (50 pts)
Any infantry regiment in the besieger's army can include a single battering ram.

Log Ram (10 pts)
Any infantry regiment in the besieger's army can have one log ram.

Ladders (5 pts)
All infantry regiments, apart from any skirmishers, in the besieger's army can have any amount of ladders.

Grappling Hooks (1 pt per model)
Any skirmishing infantry regiment in the besieger's army can be equipped with grappling hooks.

Mantlets (1 pt per model)
Any infantry units armed with missile weapons, in the besieger's army, can be equipped with mantlets.

Besieged Player's Equipment

Rocks (1 pt per model)
Any infantry regiment that is in the
besieged army may be equipped with
rocks.

Boiling Oil (25 pts per cauldron)
Any infantry regiment in the besieged army can have one cauldron.

Reinforced Gate {20 pts}
The defender may buy a reinforced gate for his castle.

Warhammer Scenario - Siege(Main Rulebook, p. 259)

Fighting the Scenario

This scenario is a fight to the death between the defenders of the fortress and their attackers. This battle will decide the fate of the fortress once and for all. The besieger has mustered all his available forces for this final attempt and the defender will have to repel them or die.

Objectives

The besieger's objective is to knock down the fortress walls, slay all the defenders and conquer the fortress. The besieged player's objective is to hold the fortress at any cost, and repulse the assault. He must survive long enough to receive any reinforcements, or drive away the attackers.

The Battlefield

The battlefield consists of the castle walls, towers and gateway, and the surrounding countryside.

Terrain

The map below shows one possible way to lay out the castle for a siege. The besieging player may then use the terrain charts on pages 222-228 to generate up to three extra pieces of terrain for the battle. These may be set up anywhere on the table, more than 24" from the fortress walls (leaving an open killing ground around the castle).

On the map you will see a typical layout for a 1,500 point force of besieged troops. Add an additional tower and section of wall for each full 500 extra points worth of besieged troops.

The Forces

Each player refers to his force selection in order to choose models for this game. These tell you how many points you can use and which troop types are allowed.

Special Rules

The scenario is played using the Warhammer rules with the following exceptions:

Castle. All the rules for attacking a castle apply. See the Rules of Siege section for details.

Siege Equipment. Both sides are allowed to buy siege equipment as explained in the Rules of Siege section in this book.

Special Deployment. Any troops with special deployment rules such as Wood Elf Scouts may not use them in this scenario.

Deployment

The besiegers are deployed first. They may be deployed anywhere on the battlefield no closer than 24" to any part of the castle. The defending force is deployed afterwards anywhere in the fortress.

Who Has the First Turn?

The defenders have the first turn.

How Long Does the Scenario Last?

The scenario lasts for seven turns. If the fortress is not captured within that time, the assault will fail.

Victory or Defeat

If either side is completely wiped out, then their opponents win by default.

Otherwise, the area within the fortress walls should be divided into four equally sized zones (see the map on the previous page). Note that the towers and walls are not included in this area.

To control one of these zones, a player must have a unit of at least 5 models in the zone. If both players have at least one unit of 5 models in the same zone, then neither player controls the zone. Note that flying troops do not count towards the victory conditions as they cannot take the fortress by themselves.

The player who controls the most zones at the end of the game is the winner. If both sides have the same amount, the game is a draw.

Assault Force

The assault force consists of twice as many points as the besieged force, thus the force can be of any size.

We recommend using 3,000 points of besiegers. Use the Warhammer Army book for the appropriate race to choose an army from.

Note that if your army has no infantry available from its Core choices, you may replace one of the Core units with any infantry unit from the Special category.

Siege Equipment

You may freely purchase any siege equipment allowed for the besieging force See the Rules of Siege section for details.

Defenders

The defenders of the besieged fortress number half the points value of the besieging force.

We recommend using 1,500 points of defenders against 3,000 points of attackers. Use the Warhammer Army book for the appropriate race to choose an army from.

Note that if your army has no infantry available from its Core choices, you may replace one of the Core units with any infantry unit from the Special category.

Siege Equipment

You may freely purchase any siege equipment allowed to the besieged force. See the Rules of Siege section for details.

Appendix Five - Accidental Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 262)

Accidental Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 262)

According to official errata, "The appendix for accidental charges on page 262 of the Warhammer rulebook has led to some dubious tactics and confusion, and should therefore be ignored."

Inasmuch, it has been included here for completeness and posterity.

In the hurly-burly of combat you sometimes need to charge across the front of one enemy unit to reach another. Normally the only problem this gives you is the fact that you can end up with your flank exposed to an enemy charge in the following turn. However, sometimes our unit ends up touching, or very nearly touching, another enemy unit with its side. It is obviously wrong to ignore this second unit when it comes to working out the combat, but what happens? Do they get a charge reaction such as stand & shoot?

In Fig. 1, unit X is free to declare a charge on unit A as it can clearly see it and it is within the charge arc.

Fig. 1

In Fig. 2a, the cavalry charge in (remembering to bring as many models into contact as possible) and realign themselves on the target. This brings them within a fraction of an inch of the front of a rather surprised unit B.

Fig. 2

From the point of view of unit B the enemy's charge goes thundering past their noses, but instead of disappearing into the distance, the unfortunate foe halts with their exposed flank a mere sword's length away. It's too good an opportunity to miss! Unit B can't believe its luck and charges into contact.

Note that unit B does not get a charge reaction in this case but does count as charging and all the normal rules apply.

In the subsequent mêlée both units X and B count as charging so fight in Initiative order. Unit A strikes after the chargers as usual.

Note that this extra move only applies if a charging unit ends up within 1" of the front of an enemy unit, ie, somewhere they could be charged by it.

Fig. 2b shows that sometimes you can follow the letter (if not the spirit) of the rules and bring the maximum number of models in while still staying over 1" away from unit B. In this case the cavalry charge in and the combat proceeds as usual. Unit B has to hope the combat remains where it is so they can charge the cavalry's flank in the following turn.

Fig. 2b

Note that as you aren't allowed to measure before you declare a charge it is extremely difficult to do this deliberately and rightly so as it is almost as bad as the evil clipping!).

Appendix Six - Rules Commentary(Main Rulebook, p. 263)

This following pages offer some observations on the game rules. These notes have been placed here at the back of the book so that the rules themselves could be kept reasonably concise. Amongst the commentaries are some further rules which we have found to be useful occasionally.

Changing Formations(Main Rulebook, p. 263)

Units can add to or reduce the depth of their formation by a single rank at a penalty of half their Movement rate, or by two ranks if they remain stationary. A rear rank still counts as a rank even if it only contains one model, although no close combat benefit is conferred unless it contains at least four models.

The units in Fig. 1 are each deployed in two ranks, although only the third unit has sufficient rear rankers to earn a combat resolution bonus because the rank has four models.

Fig. 1

In Fig. 2, there is a unit of 15 models arranged in three ranks, and the same unit redeployed into two and four ranks. In both cases the centre front model remains in place (the ideal position for the unit's champion) whilst the length of the line is reduced or expanded as evenly as possible about this centre point.

Fig. 2 - A) A unit in three ranks. B) Movement of models into two ranks. C) Movement of models into four ranks.

Often, as in this case, you will have to decide whether to move models from the left or right side as the number of models in the line shifts from odd to even, but you must still try to keep the centre front rank model as close to the centre as possible.

The easiest way to reduce a rank is to remove an entire rank from the unit's formation, and then rearrange the models evenly to the each side.

When adding a rank remove a file from one end of the formation and line it up at the back, then, if there is sufficient room, remove the file from the other side of the formation and line it up - and so on until there is no room left to rearrange a whole file.

When adding or reducing ranks you must be careful to ensure that there is room for the models to fit into their new formation.

The formation change is not permitted if space is blocked by other models or impassable terrain or buildings, if the edges of a line should creep into difficult terrain the unit does not already occupy, or if models must move over an obstacle.

Turning & The Incomplete Rank(Main Rulebook, p. 263)

The last rank of a unit is very often incomplete and if the units decide to turn 90° or 180°. It can cause a problem on the final formation. The best thing to do is to turn the models in the complete ranks first and then remove the incomplete rank and move its models to the back of the new formation, forming new ranks if necessary (Fig. 3). In extreme situations (long lines of missile troops mostly) this can look a bit bizarre, but on the whole this is a simple principle and helps in keeping the game tidy.

Fig. 3

Close Combat & The Incomplete Rank(Main Rulebook, p. 264)

Models in the incomplete rank must normally be kept as close to the centre as possible.

If the unit is charged in the flank, the models in the incomplete rank are moved in contact with the enemy and fight normally (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4

If the unit is charged in the rear, some enemy models might end up not in base contact with the enemy because of the width of the incomplete rank's models (Fig. 5 shows an extreme case). In this situation, models can attack the enemies in front of them even if not physically in base-to-base contact. In reality the chargers would not have stopped one metre away from the enemy and would have moved in, finishing their charge.

Fig. 5 - Models who are considered to be in base contact can attack each other.

Fast Cavalry Formations(Main Rulebook, p. 264)

Fast cavalry can perform great feats of speed and manoeuvre, being able to reform once as they move, even when marching! This enables a unit in a column to deploy to its left and right in a single line as shown.

The first thing to note is that the unit has deployed as equally as possible around the front model. It would deploy about the middle model in the front if the unit were formed into a wider column. Units changing their frontage rapidly in this way always do so about the centre front model. This applies equally to units forming a column from a line, or otherwise adding or reducing ranks to lengthen or shorten a line (see Fig. 6).

Fig. 6

The second thing to note is that the models at the rear of the column have actually moved a long way! The longer the column the further they move. This is not a problem in itself - fast cavalry are supposed to be fast and manoeuvrable after all but it can become a problem if the column is very long, say 20 models for example.

For this reason, when deploying from a column into a line, models must be within their Movement distance of the position they want to occupy in the front rank. Models may not move further than their Movement distance in order for the unit to redeploy, so the frontage of the unit will be reduced as a result.

The third point is that models moving from the rear of the column might find their most direct path blocked by difficult terrain, by obstacles or other troops. In this case models must be able to trace a clear path to their new position without having to cross the difficult terrain/obstacle/troops, and they may not travel further than their Movement rate to do so. Fig. 7 shows how this happens when a column rides past and behind an enemy unit, then deploys into a line.

Fig. 7 - Models 3 & 4 cannot reach the position shown as there's not enough room to move between model 1 and the enemy unit.

As a general rule, if models at the rear of a formation cannot trace a path to their intended position without moving into difficult terrain, crossing an obstacle, or moving through other troops then the unit cannot redeploy as intended.

Awkward Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 265)

Firstly, in the case of an awkward charge, a charging unit must be able to see its enemy. That is to say, the enemy unit must lie within the 90° arc of vision of at least one model in the unit.

Players are not permitted to measure to their intended target when they declare a charge. A player must use his judgement when declaring a charge, because if the target is too far away he will only be permitted to make a normal move and also loses any opportunity he might otherwise have to shoot with missile weapons. On the whole, a failed charge is bad news for the would be charger; not only might he suffer unnecessary stand & shoot hits but he will be vulnerable to an enemy charge in the next turn.

When he declares a charge a player must be reasonably sure that his unit will reach his target. A player cannot attempt to gain an advantage by declaring a charge if it is immediately obvious his unit cannot reach its target. In most cases this will be disadvantageous, but it is possible that an advantage might be gained in some situations. Where it is blindingly obvious a unit would be unable to reach its target a player is not permitted to declare a charge.

Moving chargers is perfectly straightforward in most cases. However, a battle being what it is, fought over infinitely variable terrain and subject to the strangest of circumstances, charging can sometimes degenerate into a tangle of units scattered all over the countryside. If players bear in mind the following principles they should be able to sort out even the most complex situations.

A charging unit can wheel at any point of its move in order to bring as many of its models in frontal base contact with the enemy as possible. A wheel that reduces the number of models that would otherwise fight is not allowed. Apart from this one wheel, no other manoeuvres are allowed in a charge. Units cannot wheel again, nor may they turn or change their formation.

Once the charging unit has touched its opponent the combat is committed and it only remains to align the antagonists where the charge has been made at an angle. Bear in mind what is really happening. The two units have clashed and some warriors in advance of the rest have struck the enemy first, but the rest will pile in beside them and gradually both sides come together into a wave that ebbs and flows as the troops fight.

For the purposes of the game we simply move the combatants against each other so that a battleline is formed, and for convenience it is easier to move the chargers. Therefore, the charging unit is aligned to its target, but in situations where it would be more convenient (eg, if impassable terrain is in the way) it is entirely possible to move the charged unit to align it with the charger.

This extra 'wheel in' happens automatically and can result in some models moving further than their normal charge distance (see Fig. 8). On the whole this isn't worth worrying about.

Fig. 8 - Very long wheel-in to align!

Generosity

Having laid down some harsh guidelines about overlong and impeded charges it's only proper to point out that winning because your opponent has misjudged charge by a fraction of an inch is no victory at all!

Players are encouraged to play in a spirit of cooperation, and should be prepared to allow some slight repositioning of units rather than spoil a good game. If in doubt be generous... or roll a dice to decide where things are very close.

'Clipping'(Main Rulebook, p. 266)

Some players have been known to exploit the rules by intentionally clipping a corner of the target unit in order to have just a few models fighting and thus gaining some kind of unfair advantage. Situations like this are unrealistic and should be avoided whenever possible by applying a bit of common sense.

Unfortunately sometimes 'clipping' is completely unavoidable. This can happen when the units are far apart, exactly at the maximum charge distance of the chargers (Fig. 1). This situation will make it impossible for the chargers to wheel, because any wheel would mean that they fail the charge. Therefore they will have to charge directly forward. Funnily enough, a very similar situation can occur when the units are too close and the charging unit cannot physically wheel enough to bring the maximum number of models in combat (Fig. 2).

Fig. 1 - The charging unit has a charge move of 8" and is exactly 8" away from the target unit. There is not enough movement for a wheel and the charge results in a case of 'clipping'.
Fig. 1a - (Left) Result of the charge if you apply the rules to the letter. (Right) The perfect solution players should aspire to.
Fig. 2 - The charging unit is too close to the target; another case of 'clipping'.
Fig. 2a - (Left) Result of the charge if you apply the rules to the letter. (Right) The perfect solution players should aspire to.

In these extreme situations you have to live with the clipping and continue with the game. Feel free to agree with your opponent upon any gentlemanly solution which could avoid situations like the ones in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. You could choose to allow a diagonal charge, to allow the chargers some extra movement to wheel and bring more models into contact with the enemy, or slide the chargers sideways to bring more models in to the fight. All these systems are not technically allowed by the letter of the rules, but if both players agree to use any of them, the game will benefit in realism and fun (you get to roll lots more dice as well).

The important thing to understand when you come across these sorts of situation is that clipping is an evil and a very wrong thing to do and every effort should be made to avoid it!

Multiple Targets(Main Rulebook, p. 267)

It often happens that two or more units are lined up together, so that a charge against one will result in others becoming involved. Consider the situation in Fig. 1 below.

Here a charge against the left hand unit will inevitably bring the other unit into combat. In a case like this the charging player should declare his charge against whichever unit he intends to bring most models to bear against. However, because it is inevitable that other units will be brought into the combat they are also allowed to make a normal charge response - ie, a unit can flee, stand & shoot or hold even if it is not the target of the charge, if it is inevitable it will become engaged in the combat.

Of course, units will never line up exactly. It is inevitable that a charge will reach one unit before the other if only by a fraction of an inch. So, where do you draw the line? If a unit is a fraction of an inch behind one to its side, does it avoid combat or is it drawn into the fighting?

The best way to deal with this is to stop the charge as soon as it hits any unit then align the charge to the unit as normal. If the process of alignment carries you into further enemy units then those units become drawn into the combat and the whole lot are aligned into a battleline in order to bring as many models into combat as possible. In these cases it is often necessary to move all the units. chargers and targets, in order to form a convincing battleline. Units hit during realignment have the usual options for charged troops: they can flee, hold or stand & shoot.

It can happen that a unit finds itself just out of combat because it is fractionally further away than one lined next to it, or at a slight angle compared to the chargers.

In reality the chargers would not simply stop and form a neat line whilst their enemy are so close. Therefore, the chargers are automatically moved into contact if they are within 1" of the second enemy unit and assuming the chargers have enough move left to reach them. Either move the enemy unit into position, as this is usually easiest, or shuffle all the units together until a battleline is formed.

Fig. 1 - A charge will inevitably bring two enemy units into combat. The charging unit does not have enough space to charge the target unit without charging the second enemy unit as well.
Fig. 2 - The charging unit has wheeled to charge the target and involuntarily clipped the other enemy unit. The charging unit is then aligned and both enemy units are effectively charged.
Fig. 3 - This unit is stranded by a fraction of an inch - in this situation allow chargers to engage the unit if it is within 1" and they have enough move remaining.
Fig. 3a - It is usually most convenient to move the enemy unit into place to form the battleline, otherwise shuffle the units together to make a battleline.

Multiple Charges(Main Rulebook, p. 268)

When two or more units are charging an enemy unit, the player moving them must divide evenly the frontage of the target unit between the charging units (Fig. 1). Also keep in mind that you cannot shuffle around the charging units so that their charges cross in order to bring in the strongest unit (Fig. 2).

Fig. 1 - Both units charge.
Fig. 1b - (Left) Yes. (Right) No!
Fig. 2 - All units charge.
Fig. 2b - (Left) Yes. (Right) No!

Remember, the spirit of the game is the best guideline to follow, so try to do something that 'looks right' and is realistic, as opposed to trying to stretch the rules to create a weird situation which looks obviously wrong like the infamous 'clipping') and gains some unfair advantage to one player.

Skirmishers Charging Other Skirmishers(Main Rulebook, p. 268)

When a skirmishing unit charges another skirmishing unit, take the model of the charging unit which is closest to the charged unit and move it into base contact with the closest model in the charged unit. (Fig. 3)

Fig. 3

Then, move all the models which can reach into a fighting line, lining them up with the first model moved. Other charging models that do not have enough movement to line up on the fighting line will form up behind it, as usual for skirmishers charging (Fig. 4)

Fig 4.

Now the charged unit will form up as normal for a unit of skirmishers charged by an enemy unit. (Fig. 5)

Fig. 5

Appendix Seven - Special Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 269)

This section summarises the most common special rules that are used in Warhammer. We have compiled these for the convenience of experienced players to act as a 'memory jogger' during heated games. In all cases the main rules are definitive, and you should refer to the full rules description to solve any disputes.

Skirmishers(Main Rulebook, p. 269)

  1. Skirmishing models in a unit deploy 1" apart from one another.

  2. Skirmishers can move at double their Movement rate in any direction they want and suffer no penalties for moving through difficult terrain or crossing obstacles. If skirmishers move at double pace they may not shoot.

  3. Skirmishers can shoot and charge within a 360° arc. They do not block line of sight for other members of their own unit but do block the line of sight of other units.

  4. Missile fire targeted at skirmishers suffers a -1 to hit penalty.

  5. Skirmishers may charge an enemy unit visible to at least one of its members. Models are moved individually towards their target and arranged into a fighting line. Models unable to reach the enemy are formed up behind the models in the fighting line.

  6. If skirmishers are charged, the enemy is halted once it reaches the closest skirmisher. The skirmishers now form up as described above.

  7. Skirmishers receive no combat bonuses for extra ranks and do not negate an enemy unit's rank bonuses if they charge them in the flank or rear.

  8. A character on foot may join a skirmishing unit.

Fast Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 269)

  1. If they are not charging, a unit of fast cavalry may reform at any point in its Movement phase with no penalties to its Move distance. Even with this free reform no model may move further than its maximum Movement distance.

  2. Fast cavalry units may fire in any direction and can also shoot while marching. Line of sight rules still apply for stand & shoot reactions. etc.

  3. If a unit of fast cavalry rallies the turn after it voluntarily flees, it will be able to move normally during the Movement phase of that same turn.

  4. A mounted character may join a fast cavalry unit but does not benefit from the special shooting rules.

Flying Models(Main Rulebook, p. 269)

  1. Flying units operate as skirmishers and obey all the rules that apply to skirmishing troops.

  2. Flying models may fly up to 20" in any direction. Line of sight rules still apply when declaring charges and shooting.

  3. Flying models may move along the ground using their Movement rate and all the normal rules governing movement apply. A flyer may either fly or move on the ground, but cannot combine both in a single turn.

  4. Flying models may ignore movement penalties for changing direction, overflying scenery or crossing obstacles. They may also freely overfly other models, including enemy units. Flying models may not move, land or take off from within a wood or any terrain feature that the players consider would not allow it.

  5. A flyer may declare a charge against an enemy within its 20" move as normal. This aerial move is never doubled during the charge and the charged unit has all the usual charge response options. Note that flyers do cause panic if they charge a unit in the flank or rear that is already engaged in close combat.

  6. Flyer opponents in close combat never gain the Higher Ground combat bonus and never gain the advantage of fighting from behind a defended obstacle.

  7. Flyers always pursue and flee 3D6" unless they are forced to do so on the ground in which case their Movement value will be used to work out how far they move.

Standard Bearers and Musicians(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

Standard Bearers and Musicians must be placed in a unit's front rank and fight exactly as other members of the unit. When removing casualties it is permissible to remove another model in preference to the Standard Bearer.

  1. A unit that includes a Standard Bearer may add +1 to its combat result.

  2. If a unit pursues a broken enemy that flees from combat it automatically captures the unit's Standard regardless of whether they catch the unit or not.

  3. A fleeing unit with a Musician gains +1 Ld bonus on any attempt to rally (up to a maximum of 10).

  4. If a close combat is a draw and one side has a Musician and the other does not, the side with the Musician wins the combat by 1 point. If both sides have Musician then the combat is still a draw.

Scouts(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

  1. Scouts are set up after both armies have deployed. They can set up anywhere on the table, but must be out of sight of the enemy and no closer to him than 10".

  2. If both armies have Scouts then roll a D6. The player with the higher score may choose to deploy his own Scouts before or after his opponent.

Immune to Psychology(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

Units immune to psychology never need test for psychology such as fear, terror or frenzy and they may never choose flee as a charge response Break tests still apply as normal.

Unbreakable(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

Unbreakable units never need to take Break tests and are also immune to psychology such as fear, terror or frenzy. They may never choose flee as a charge response.

Scaly Skin(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

Scaly skin may be combined with regular armour to improve a model's saving throw. Scaly skin counts as an armour save and can be modified by weapons with a high strength.

Killing Blow(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

If a model with the Killing Blow skill rolls a 6 when rolling to wound he automatically slays his opponent. Only Ward saves can be used to counter this ability.

This skill may only be used against roughly man-sized opponents.

Regeneration(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

Every wound suffered by a creature that can regenerate may be recovered on a 4+. Only one attempt per wound may be made. Combat results are worked out after any regeneration. Wounds that are caused by fire cannot be regenerated once the regenerating creature is wounded.

Magic Resistance(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

The number of dice in the brackets indicates how many extra dice you may roll when attempting to dispel any magic directed against the magically resistant creature.

Poisoned Attacks(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

Poisoned attacks will cause a wound automatically on a model if a natural 6 is scored when rolling to hit. Armour saves are taken as normal.

Unliving troop types are immune to poison attacks.

Breath Weapons(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

Creatures that utilise a breath weapon may use it during the Shooting phase. The Flame template is placed over the target unit with the narrow end at the creature's head.

Only models that are completely under the template are hit. Work out the effects of the breath weapon as described in the relevant creature's section.

Characters affected are eligible for 'Look out, Sir!' rolls when within a unit.

This weapon cannot be used as a stand & shoot reaction.

Flammable(Main Rulebook, p. 270)

Creatures that are flammable take double the normal number of wounds caused by flaming attacks. Take amour saves before doubling the wounds.

Appendix Eight - Sequence of Play(Main Rulebook, p. 269)

This section of the book summarises the sequence of play and basic rules for Warhammer. In all cases the text in the main rules is definitive.

Turn Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 271)

  1. Start of the turn

  2. Movement

  3. Magic

  4. Shooting

  5. Close combat

1. Start of the Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 271)

Take any tests required such as Panic, Terror or Stupidity.

2. Movement(Main Rulebook, p. 271)

  1. Declare charges

  2. Rally fleeing troops

  3. Compulsory moves

  4. Move chargers

  5. Remaining moves

Declare Charges (p.44)

Indicate which units are charging and nominate the enemy unit which they are going to charge. Take Panic tests for any units that are in close combat that will be charged in the flank or rear. Opponent decides charge responses.

Charge Responses (p.45)

Stand & Shoot

If the attackers begin their charge more than half their charge move away they may be fired upon by troops armed with missile weapons. Should this cause the chargers to take and fail a Panic test they will flee in the Compulsory Movement phase.

Hold

The unit stands fast and braces itself ready to be charged. This is the usual reaction of troops who are either not armed with missile weapons or are too close to the enemy to be able to use them.

Flee

Models are moved immediately 2D6" away from the enemy if their Movement is 6" or less, 3D6" if their Movement is more than 6".

Rally Fleeing Troops (p.75)

Troops that fled in a previous turn can be rallied by rolling less than or equal to the unit's Leadership characteristic on 2D6. A unit must have at least 25% of its original number of models surviving to rally. Rallied troops may not move or shoot this turn but may adopt any formation facing the enemy. Rallied characters may cast spells as normal.

Compulsory Moves (p.45)

Compulsory movement is done after charges have been declared, but before any movement. Units subject to compulsory movement, such as those forced to flee or under the effects of frenzy or stupidity, must be moved now.

Fleeing troops move either 2D6" or 3D6" depending on their Movement characteristic, ignoring penalties for obstacles and difficult ground but moving around impassable terrain. Frenzied troops move their normal charge distance if they are within range of their target. Otherwise they may move as normal. Stupid troops half their Movement if they fail their Leadership test.

Move Chargers (p.52)

Chargers make a double move towards the target unit and must bring as many models into combat as possible. Chargers may not turn or change formation, but can wheel to bring more models into contact with the enemy. However, the unit need not do so if this means that it would not reach its target. Once a unit reaches the enemy it halts and is aligned with its opponent to form a neat battle line. This alignment move is free. If a charging unit's target has fled but is still within charge range it is destroyed.

Failed Charges

If the target unit flees out of reach or the charge move is too short, the charge has failed. Move the charging unit its normal movement unless another unit is also within range in which case the charge may be redirected against this new target. A charge may only be redirected once. Units which fail to complete a charge may not shoot although a wizard is free to cast spells as normal.

Remaining Moves (p.49)

Any remaining units may now move up to their maximum move distance. Units may move in a straight line or may manoeuvre. There are four types of manoeuvre:

Wheel

Units can pivot around one corner. Measure the distance travelled from the outside model. A unit may wheel several times in a turn as long as it has enough movement. A unit may wheel once in a charge to bring more models into combat.

Turn

A unit that is not charging or marching may turn 90° or 180° by surrendering a quarter of its move. Note that each individual model turns in place; the unit as a whole does not move. Leaders, Standard Bearers and Musicians are then moved to the unit's new front rank.

Change Formation

A unit may increase or decrease the number of ranks it is deployed in by one at a cost of half its move. It may increase or decrease its ranks by two if it does not move at all.

Reform

If it is not in close combat a unit may reform into as many ranks as it wishes and facing in any direction it wishes. If a unit reforms it cannot move at all and may not shoot in the Shooting phase, but Wizards are free to cast spells as normal.

3. Magic(Main Rulebook, p. 272)

  1. Calculate Power and Dispel dice

  2. Cast spells

  3. Attempt to dispel

  4. Spell succeeds or fails

  5. Cast again. Repeat steps 2 - 4

  6. Dispel any spells in play

Generate Power and Dispel Dice (p.135)

Power Dice

The player whose turn it is generates two Power dice plus a number of extra dice depending on the number and level of Wizards in his army. This is summarised as follows:

  • Basic number of dice: 2 dice

  • For each Level 1 Wizard: +1 dice

  • For each Level 2 Wizard: +2 dice

  • For each Level 3 Wizard: +3 dice

  • For each Level 4 Wizard: +4 dice

Fleeing or dead Wizards do not generate Power dice.

Add any bonus dice provided by magic items, spells, etc.

Dispel Dice

The opposing player generates two Dispel dice (four in the case of a Dwarf army) plus a number of extra dice depending on the number and level of Wizards, Runesmiths or Runelords in his army. This is summarised as follows.

  • Each Runesmith or Runelord: +1 dice

  • For each Level 1 Wizard: +1 dice

  • For each Level 2 Wizard: +1 dice

  • For each Level 3 Wizard: +2 dice

  • For each Level 4 Wizard: +2 dice

Fleeing or dead Wizards do not generate Dispel dice.

Add any bonus dice provided by magic items, spells, etc.

Cast Spells (p.136)

A Wizard may attempt to cast each of his spells once. Nominate which spell is to be cast and the target of the spell. Roll as many Power dice as you wish up to the maximum allowed by the Wizard's level. If you roll equal or better than the spell's casting value the spell is cast. Expended dice are removed from the casting player's pile whether the spell was cast or not. A roll of 1 or 2 is always a failure, regardless of modifiers.

Maximum Power Dice Rolled for a Single Spell

  • Level 1 Wizard: 2 dice

  • Level 2 Wizard: 3 dice

  • Level 3 Wizard: 4 dice

  • Level 4 Wizard: 5 dice

Miscasts

Rolling two or more 1's means the spell has been miscast. The Wizard must roll 2D6 on the Miscast table.

Irresistible Force

Rolling two or more G's means the spell has been cast with Irresistible Force. It is cast successfully and cannot be dispelled by the opposing player. If two G's and two 1's are rolled, the spell fails and the Wizard must roll 2D6 on the Miscast table.

Attempt to Dispel (p.137)

The opposing player may make one attempt to dispel the enemy's spell irrespective of which unit it was cast on. Roll as many Dispel dice as you wish up to the maximum number you have. If you wish to use any magic items to boost the dispel you must declare this before rolling the dice. If the number rolled is equal to or greater than the score rolled by the casting player, then the spell is dispelled. If two or more 1's are rolled then the dispel fails automatically regardless of the actual score rolled.

Spell Succeeds or Fails

Apply the effects of the spell as described in the Magic section.

Cast Again

If you have more spells to cast and any Power dice left, you may cast again.

Dispel Spells in Play

Once all spells have been cast, both players may attempt to dispel any spell cast in a previous turn. The opposing player may attempt to do so first. To dispel a spell already in play the dice only have to equal or beat the casting value of the spell. The casting player may then attempt to dispel spells in play counting any remaining Power dice as Dispel dice and following the above procedure. Spells originally cast with Irresistible Force can be dispelled as normal.

4. Shooting(Main Rulebook, p. 272)

  1. Declare target

  2. Measure range

  3. Roll to hit

  4. Roll to wound

  5. Take armour saves

  6. Remove casualties

  7. Take any Panic tests

Declare Target

A model armed with a missile weapon may choose any enemy unit as a target if it lies within the model's 90° fire arc and the line of sight is not blocked by intervening models or terrain. Hedges and walls block line of sight but a model placed directly behind such features may shoot over them and may in turn be shot at. It is possible to target models which are within 2" of the edge of woods or similar terrain but no further. Only models in the front rank of the unit may fire their missile weapons unless the unit is positioned on a hill, in which case up to two ranks may fire. You must shoot first with all weapons that require the range to be guessed.

Measure Range

Measure the range to the target. Determine whether targets are in long or short range. Up to and including half the maximum range of the weapon is short range. Long range is between half and the maximum range of weapon. If targets are out of range the shots miss automatically.

Roll to Hit

Consult the following table to find the score required on a D6 to hit the target. A dice roll of 1 is always a miss regardless of modifiers.

Ballistic Skill12345678910
To Hit Score6543210-1-2-3

To Hit Modifiers

  • +1 Shooting at large target

  • -1 Shooting while moving

  • -1 Shooting at a charging enemy

  • -1 Shooting at long range

  • -1 Shooting at a single character or skirmishers

  • -1 Target is behind soft cover

  • -2 Target is behind hard cover

Soft Cover

  • Hedges

  • Woodlands

  • Bushes

  • Fences / Railings

  • High Grass

Hard Cover

  • Rocks / Rubble

  • Walls

  • Wooden palisades

  • Buildings

  • Trenches

7+ to Hit

If to hit modifiers result in a required score of 7 or more, consult the table below to work out the dice rolls
needed to score a hit.

7

6 followed by a 4, 5 or 6

8

6 followed by a 5 or 6

9

6 followed by a 6

10+

Impossible!

Roll to Wound

Cross reference the Strength of the weapon versus the target's Toughness value on the To Wound table below to discover the minimum score required on a D6 to cause a wound.

A\T12345678910
14566NNNNNN
234566NNNNN
3234566NNNN
42234566NNN
522234566NN
6222234566N
72222234566
82222223456
92222222345
102222222234

Take Armour Saves

Roll a D6 for each wound caused. If the score is equal to or greater than the model's saving throw then the wound has been saved. A roll of 1 always fails.

Armour

Armour Worn

Armour Save

Armour Save if Cavalry

None

None

6+

Shield or light armour

6+

5+

Shield & light armour or heavy armour only

5+

4+

Shield & heavy armour

4+

3+

Riders with shields & heavy armour, riding armoured mounts

-

2+

Armour Save Modifiers

Armour saves are modified by the Strength of the attacking weapon. This is summarised on the table below.

Strength

Armour Save Reduction

3 or less

None

4

-1

5

-2

6

-3

7

-4

8

-5

9

-6

10

-7

Ward Saves

Ward saves are unmodified by Strength and allow a model a save even when one would not normally be allowed.

A model can have an armour save and a Ward save, but only one Ward save may be taken per wound.

Remove Casualties

Remove all casualties from shooting from the rear, or roughly equally from the sides if the unit has only one rank.

Multiple Wound Casualties

Where models in a unit have more than 1 wound each, remove complete models where possible and note any extra wounds suffered by the unit.

Take Any Panic Tests

If a unit takes 25% or more casualties from shooting it must immediately take a Panic test.

5. Close Combat(Main Rulebook, p. 273)

  1. Fight Combats

  2. Calculate Combat Results

  3. Break Tests

  4. Panic Tests

  5. Flee!

  6. Pursue

  7. Redress Ranks

Fight Combats

Resolve combats one at a time. The player whose turn it is will determine the order of the combats. Models can fight each other if their bases are touching.

Order of Combat

Charging units strike first. Otherwise, models strike in order of Initiative. In cases where Initiative scores are the same, the side that won the previous combat round strikes first. If neither side won the previous combat round, roll a D6 and the player scoring highest strikes first.

Roll to Hit

Check on the To Hit table on the next page to find the score needed on a D6 to hit. When attacking cavalry, use the rider's WS. For ridden monsters, both rider and mount use their own WS. A roll of a 1 always misses and a 6 always hits regardless of the relative Weapon Skills.

A\T12345678910
14455555555
23444555555
33344445555
43334444455
53333444444
63333344444
73333334444
83333333444
93333333344
103333333334

Defended Obstacles

Models behind or in defended obstacles can only be hit on a roll of a 6, regardless of relative Weapon Skills. Once attackers win a round of combat, further combat rounds are fought as normal.

Roll to Damage

Cross reference the attacker's Strength versus the defender's Toughness value on the To Wound table below to find the score required on a D6 to cause a wound.

A\T12345678910
14566NNNNNN
234566NNNNN
3234566NNNN
42234566NNN
522234566NN
6222234566N
72222234566
82222223456
92222222345
102222222234

Take Armour Saves

Roll a D6 for each wound that is caused. If the score is equal to or greater than the model's saving throw then the wound has been saved. A roll of 1 is always a failure regardless of a model's armour save. Saving throw modifiers for Strength apply. See the Shooting section earlier for modifiers.

Remove Casualties

Remove casualties from rear ranks but place them behind the unit in order to make calculating the combat results easier. If more wounds are caused than there are models fighting in the combat, excess casualties are removed as normal.

Combat Results (p.71)

Add up the number of wounds caused by each side in the combat, remembering to count those caused to multiple wound creatures not removed as casualties and ignoring those saved by armour or Ward saves. Add any modifiers that apply from the table below. The side with the higher score has won the combat.

Combat Resolution Bonuses

  • +1 per rank after the first, to maximum of +3

  • +1 If the unit outnumbers the enemy

  • +1 Standard bearer in front rank

  • +1 Unit occupies higher ground

  • +1 Flank attack. If both flanks are engaged the modifier will still only be +1.

  • +2 Rear attack. Combined with a flank attack, this gives a +3 bonus.

  • +1 Overkill. A challenger who kills his opponent and inflicts more wounds than the enemy has adds +1 to the combat result score for each excess wound caused.

Losers take Break Test

The losing unit in a combat rolls 2D6 and adds the difference between the combat results. If the score is greater than the unit's Leadership value the unit has broken and will flee once all remaining combats have been resolved.

Panic Tests

All units within 6" of a friendly unit that has broken or been destroyed must take an immediate Panic test. This is done after all Break test have been taken, but before fleeing troops are moved.

Flee! (p.74)

Fleeing troops move directly away from the largest enemy unit involved in the combat. If the unit normally moves 6" or less it flees 2D6". If it normally moves more than 6" it flees 3D6". Fleeing units ignore movement penalties for difficult ground and obstacles, but must move around impassable terrain.

Pursuit (p.75)

Victorious units will pursue fleeing troops 2D6" if their normal movement is 6" or less, 3D6" if their normal movement is greater than 6". If this score is equal to or greater than the score rolled by the unit it is pursuing, the fleeing unit is destroyed. If pursuers do not move far enough to catch the fleeing unit then they move the distance indicated and no further casualties are caused. Pursuers ignore movement penalties for difficult ground and obstacles, but must move around impassable terrain in exactly the same way as fleeing troops.

Pursuers always move their full pursuit distance towards fleeing troops unless this carries them into a fresh enemy unit in which case the pursuit counts as a new charge and is resolved in the following turn. The pursuers count as charging and receive all the appropriate benefits as if they had charged that turn. If the fresh enemy unit causes fear or terror the pursuing unit does not need to take a Ld test in order to charge them. In subsequent turns the effects of fear and terror apply as normal.

Restraining Pursuit

A unit may restrain its pursuit by rolling equal to or less than its Leadership value on 2D6. You must declare that you are attempting to do so before the dice are rolled to see how far fleeing troops run.

Units that are fighting from a building or other defended position can automatically restrain a pursuit without having to test against their Leadership.

Pursuit Off Table

A unit that pursues its enemy off the table returns to the same point as where it left in its next turn. It may not charge, but can otherwise move and fight as normal. Wizards may cast spells normally. The unit counts as having moved for the purposes of shooting.

Redress the Ranks (p.76)

Formations are now tidied up ready for the next phase. Fleeing units may not redress their ranks.

Units that have won their combat can, if they wish, expand their frontage or lap around the enemy unit they are in contact with.

The Overrun Rule (p.78)

If a unit slays all its opponents in the first round of combat it may make an Overrun move if it wishes. This will be either 2D6" or 3D6" depending on the unit's Movement value, exactly like flee and pursuit.

If this carries the unit into a fresh enemy unit it counts as a new charge and is resolved in the following turn. The Overrunning unit counts as charging and receives all the appropriate benefits as if they had charged that turn.

A charged unit may only respond to the charge by holding, it may not stand & shoot or flee. If the fresh enemy unit causes fear or terror the pursuing unit does not need to take a Leadership test in order to charge them. In subsequent turns the effects of fear and terror apply as normal.

Assuming that the Overrunning unit doesn't encounter any fresh enemy, it moves the distance indicated by the dice roll and is then free to act as normal in its next turn.

Warhammer Glossary(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

Armour Save(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

Many models have an armour save. Roll equal to or above the number indicated for a model's save to prevent damage. An armour save can be modified by a variety of factors, such as the attacker's Strength.

Break Test(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

If your unit loses a combat it must take a Break test. Roll 2D6 and compare the score with your unit's Leadership value, modified by the difference in Combat Results. If you roll over this number, your unit flees.

Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

Models riding creatures with only 1 Wound (such as horses, giant wolves and war boars) are called cavalry. Both rider and mount are considered to be a single model and both are removed from play when the rider loses his last Wound. Attacks are all resolved against the rider only. A calvary model adds +1 to its armour save due to the extra protection offered by the steed.

Champion(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

Champions are a special type of character who must always be with a unit. Champions must be placed in the front rank of the unit that they are with.

Character(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

Characters are represented by individual models, which fight as units in their own right. Characters can join units if required. Characters with the ability to cast spells are called Wizards. Characteristic Profile Every model in the game is described in terms of its characteristic profile. This profile describes how the creature fights and reacts in the Warhammer world.

Charge Reaction(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

If a unit is charged it must declare a charge reaction, either Hold, Flee or Stand & Shoot. (see p.45)

Combat Result(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

The result of a close combat. To calculate the Combat Result add up the number of unsaved wounds you inflicted upon your enemy and apply all of your Combat Result modifiers such as rank bonuses and standards. Your opponent does the same. The unit with the lowest score is the loser and has to take a Break test.

Compulsory Move(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

A compulsory move is a move that a unit must make whether or not the controlling player wishes to. An example of a compulsory move is the random movement of a Night Goblin Fanatic.

D6(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

A six-sided dice is referred to in Warhammer as a D6.

Dispel Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

The amount of dice you have available to dispel magic. You get two basic Dispel dice plus +1 for each 1st or 2nd Level Wizard and +2 for each 3rd or 4th Level Wizard in your army.

Fast Cavalry(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

Fast Cavalry are a special type of unit and are described on p.117 of the rulebook.

Front, Flank and Rear(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

The diagram below shows a unit's front, flank and rear.

A unit's front, flank and rear zones extend out from its corners forming 4 quadrants of 90° as shown above.

Flee!(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

If a unit is forced to flee then you need to see how far it moves. Roll 3D6 if the Front, flank unit's Movement characteristic is greater than 6" otherwise roll 2D6. The total score on the dice is how far the fleeing unit will move in inches.

Irresistible Force(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

If you roll two or more 6s when casting a spell, the spell is cast with Irresistible Force. The spell is automatically cast and cannot be dispelled.

Line of Sight(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

What a particular model can see and therefore charge or shoot at, is normally measured within a 90° arc projected from the front of the model.

Terrain plays an important part in determining line of sight and is discussed in greater depth on p.59 of the rulebook.

Magic Items(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

Magic items are powerful artefacts which confer special powers, bonuses and advantages to models who are carrying them.

Only characters carry magic items (apart from magic banners, which can be carried by certain units).

Manoeuvre(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

This is the method by which a unit changes direction or changes its formation. Manoeuvring is described further on p.49.

March Move(Main Rulebook, p. 277)

A march move is double a unit's normal Movement rate. Units that are 8" or closer to an enemy unit may not march move.

Marching units may not perform any manoeuvers, other than wheeling, and may not enter difficult terrain.

Miscast(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

If you roll two or more 1s when casting a spell, a Miscast occurs. The spell is not cast and you have to roll on the Miscast Table to determine what happens to the Wizard who miscast the spell.

Model(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

Each individual playing piece in a game of Warhammer is defined as a model.

Panic(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

There are many circumstances in a game of Warhammer that can cause a unit to panic. These are listed on p.80 of the rulebook. To make a Panic test roll 2D6. If the total rolled is less than or equal to the Leadership value of the unit forced to make the test, the unit is fine. If the total rolled is greater than the Leadership value of the unit, the Panic test is failed and the unit must flee in the same way as if it had failed a Break test

Power Dice(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

The amount of dice you have available to cast magic. You get two basic Power dice plus +1 for each level of magic you have in your army.

Pursuit(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

If a unit flees due to a failed Break test then the winning unit may attempt to pursue. Roll 3D6 if the unit's Movement characteristic is greater than 6" otherwise roll 2D6. If the total rolled is equal to or greater than the Movement rolled for the fleeing unit then the fleeing unit is caught and destroyed. If the total rolled is less than the fleeing unit's Movement then the fleeing unit remains in play. Whether the fleeing unit is destroyed or not, move the pursuing unit the distance indicated on the dice in inches.

Rally(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

A unit that is fleeing can attempt to rally in its Movement phase. Roll 2D6 and if the total is equal to or less than the Leadership value of the fleeing unit, it rallies. This means that it stops fleeing and reforms instead. A unit must have at least 25% of its original number of models to attempt to rally.

Rank Bonus(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

A modifier to the Combat Result. For each rank of four or more models after the first rank you may add +1 to your Combat Result, up to a maximum of +3. The rank bonus is calculated before combat begins.

Re-roll(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

In some situations the rules allow you a re-roll dice. To re-roll, pick up the number of dice you ORIGINALLY rolled and roll them again. (ie, if you re-roll 2D6 you must roll both dice again not just one of them). The second score counts with a re-roll even if it means a worse result than the first, and no single dice roll can be re-rolled more than once, regardless of the source of the re-roll.

Steed(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

A steed is any ridden creature which has only 1 Wound.

Turn(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

Games of Warhammer are split up into turns, with each turn being split into several distinct phases called the turn sequence. One player takes a complete turn and then his opponent does the same.

Turn Sequence(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

Turns are split up into a series of steps that are played through in a certain order. This is called the turn sequence. The turn sequence for Warhammer is: Start of Turn, Movement, Magic, Shooting and Close Combat.

Unit(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

Units are groups of one or more models that fight together on the Warhammer battlefield. Normally all the models in a unit must be in base-to-base contact. Different types of models, such as infantry, cavalry or war machines, make up different type of units. These different unit types are explained on p.40.

Unit Strength(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

Unit Strength is used to compare the relative impact value of different troops types. Most models have a Unit Strength of 1, but some have more. Cavalry models have a Unit Strength of 2, Ogres and Trolls have 3, and so on.

Ward Save(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

This is a special type of save. Roll equal to or above the number indicated for model's save to prevent that model taking damage. This roll is NOT modified by any factors. A Ward save can even stop attacks which do not allow any armour saves.

Weapon(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

A weapon is what a model uses to attack its enemies. A model may have several different weapons. However, only one of them can be used at any one time (unless a model is armed with two hand weapons). The table on p.93 lists all of the weapon types used in the game together with the effects that that weapon has.

Wizard(Main Rulebook, p. 278)

A Wizard is a special type of character who has magical powers. The number of Wizards in your army dictates how many Dispel dice and Power dice you get. The Magic section, beginning on p.134 of the rulebook, contains details of how to use Wizards in the Warhammer game.

Notes on Scale and Measurement(Main Rulebook, p. 279)

Metric Measurements

Warhammer utilises traditional imperial measurements of feet and inches, but it is perfectly possible, if less convenient, to play the game in centimetres should players prefer to do so.

Rather than attempt to translate distances into their metric equivalents, we recommend that players simply double all distances and measure in centimetres. So 12" becomes 24cm, 4" becomes 8cm and so on. This has the effect of slightly reducing the Movement distances and ranges compared to a game played in inches, but this is tolerable and can even be regarded as advantageous in that it allows a game to be played in a slightly smaller area. Randomly generated distances can also be accommodated easily using this method, simply by doubling the scores rolled.

Scale

In Warhammer each model represents a single warrior, monster, machine or whatever, whilst an inch on the tabletop is equivalent to about five feet in real life - the same as the scale height of the models themselves.

Players might correctly point out that in the real world a bowman can shoot an arrow well over 200 yards rather than the paltry 40 yards or so represented by the weapon's maximum Warhammer range of 24". The reason is that we have reduced all measured distances to produce a playable tabletop game. The game's designers reduced distances roughly in the proportion of 1" equals 10 yards, so a bow with a range of 24" is judged to have an effective range of 240 yards. The alternative is to allow the bow a range of 144" and fight all battles in a car park!

A similar observation could be made about the number of models comprising a regiment of troops. It would be impractical though not actually impossible to field regiments comprising hundreds of models, so battles are represented using fewer troops than a literalist might demand. The ten or twenty models in a game unit stand for a regiment of several hundred troops, and for this reason regiments manoeuvre and react as if they were larger formations. As both sides field regiments reduced in size, the relative values are preserved and the results amount to the same thing. To put it another way, if 10 Elves can beat 10 Goblins then 100 Elves can beat 100 Goblins just as convincingly!

Time

Players sometimes ask how long a time is represented by a single turn of play. Does a turn last for hours or does it represent a few minutes? Warhammer has been designed as a game, events which might realistically last for hours have been compacted into a shorter time though with the same overall results.

A real battle might last for most of a day, whilst a Warhammer game will typically last for 5 or 6 turns on each side. We presume that these 5 or 6 turns represent the passage of about the same number of hours or perhaps slightly longer.

Of course, in reality a warrior can shoot more than 5 or 6 times in that many hours, he can move much further, and so forth. However, we compact events together and cut out all the time spent in inactivity. In a real battle troops stand idle for much of the time, only moving into action when required, and then expending much of their energy all at once.

If you like, think of a Warhammer turn as a short period of activity together with longer periods idleness, waiting for orders, resting, and so forth. Similarly, just as one model stands for many, so an arrow or crossbow bolt might be thought of as representing a whole shower of missiles fired by shooters who have limited supplies of missiles, and who would soon become tired by
repeated firing.

On House Rules(Main Rulebook, p. 279)

Most gamers like to make up their own rules, to invent characters, and perhaps even design their own scenarios. Traditionally, when players reinterpret or modify the game rules, or add new rules of their own, these are referred to as 'house rules' literally the rules played when gaming at that person's house. When you go round to a fellow enthusiast's home it is only fair to play to his house rules. After all, he is supplying the tea and biccies.

if they wish. For example, why not stage an attack on a Dwarf miners' mule train - you'd have to make up rules for mules and wagons, possibly allowing time for loading up the train with gold, and decide how the loss of their gold affects the miners. As is well known 'gold fever' can have very profound effects on Dwarfs and turn them into unstoppable maniacs!

Warhammer lends itself to adaption very well and players should feel free to change, remove, or add to the rules Obviously it's possible to imagine many ways of representing such a scenario, or any situation, from a raid into underground catacombs to sieges, street riots, bank robberies and bar room brawls. I know of experienced and very confident players who go even further, changing some of the basic rules themselves to suit their own style of play. And why not indeed! Warhammer is supposed to be a broad set of game rules that hardened veterans can adapt, change or add to as they please.

The only disadvantage of making up your own house rules is that you will have to revert to the normal rules when playing other gamers, or if you're taking part in a formal competition where a common standard is required.